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    Glossary

    Glossary – R

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    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD)
    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a fairly rare, but nonetheless, severe emotional disorder, that should be treated with appropriate, professional care. RAD is a condition that actually starts during the earliest years of a human’s development. RAD is prevalent in infants who were not given proper loving treatment in their first months living.

    Those who suffer from reactive attachment disorder, are commonly misunderstood, and can even appear to lack human empathy or other personable emotions. However, this is only the appearance of those who suffer from RAD and completely superficial observations by those who do not know them.

    People suffering from RAD, are traumatized individuals. RAD is the result of an individual suffering mistreatment, early on in their developmental lives. Additionally, afflicted individuals build a social ‘exterior,’ which is created with the intentions of keeping people ‘out.’ Moreover, a person suffering from RAD builds this social exterior, as a defense mechanism, or as preventative measures so that they cannot feel the same neglect as they once have.

    Receptor
    special protein on the membrane or in the cytoplasm of a target cell with which a drug, a neurotransmitter, or a hormone interacts.

    Recidivism
    return or relapse to a type of behavior, such as drug taking.

    Recovery
    maintenance of abstinence from alcohol and/or other drug use by any means. The term is particularly associated with mutual-help groups, and in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other twelve-step groups refers to the process of attaining and maintaining sobriety. Since recovery is viewed as a lifelong process, an AA member is always viewed internally as a “recovering” alcoholic, although “recovered” alcoholic may be used as a description to the outside world.

    Recovery home
    see halfway house.

    Recreational use
    referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug only to get “high” or achieve some pleasurable effect.

    Recreational use
    use of a drug, usually an illicit drug, in sociable or relaxing circumstances, by implication without dependence or other problems. The term is disfavored by those seeking to define all illicit drug use as a problem.

    Rehabilitate
    to restore to effectiveness or normal life by training etc., esp. after imprisonment or illness; to restore to former privileges or reputation or a proper condition.

    Rehabilitation
    in the field of substance use, the process by which an individual with a substance use disorder achieves an optimal state of health, psychological functioning, and social well-being. Rehabilitation follows the initial phase of treatment (which may involve detoxification and medical and psychiatric treatment). It encompasses a variety of approaches including group therapy, specific behavior therapies to prevent relapse, involvement with a mutual-help group, residence in a therapeutic community or half-way house, vocational training, and work experience. There is an expectation of social reintegration into the wider community.

    Reinstatement
    reversion to a pre-existing level of substance use and dependence in an individual who has resumed use following a period of abstinence. As described, not only does the individual return to the previous pattern of regular or intensive substance use, but there is also a rapid reinstatement of other dependence elements, such as impaired control, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms.

    Relapse
    A relapse is when an individual chooses to act on negative behavior that they have previously determined to quit engaging in due to self-destructive consequences that action had on their life. An example of a personal relapse would be if an individual who overcame drug addiction chose to engage in drug abuse even though they have personally overcome that harmful activity.

    Unfortunately, relapsing is always a possibility for those who have recovered from a self-sabotaging behavior, regardless of personal integrity, strength or intentions. The more an individual who is in recovery is aware of this fact, the more likely they will be able to stray away from the past’s, self-destructive behavioral patterns. However, if a person who has recovered from a substance or other harmful addiction, simply acts as though they are impervious to ever relapsing, they are more likely to do so in the future.

    Relapse
    a return to drinking or other drug use after a period, of abstinence, often accompanied by reinstatement of dependence symptoms. Some writers distinguish between relapse and lapse (“slip”), with the latter denoting an isolated occasion of alcohol or drug use. See also: relapse prevention

    Relapse
    the return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a patient has enjoyed a remission. For example, after treatment a patient with cancer of the colon went into remission with no sign or symptom of the tumor, remained in remission for 4 years, but then suffered a relapse and had to be treated once again for colon cancer.

    Relapse prevention (1)
    a set of therapeutic procedures employed in cases of alcohol or other drug problems to help individuals avoid or cope with lapses or relapses to uncontrolled substance use. The procedures may be used with treatment based on either moderation or abstinence, and in conjunction with other therapeutic approaches. Patients are taught coping strategies that can be used to avoid situations considered dangerous precipitants of relapse, and shown, through mental rehearsal and other techniques, how to minimize substance use once a slip has occurred.

    Relapse prevention (2)
    a therapeutic process for interrupting behaviors, beliefs and self-talk that lead to life style dysfunction.

    Remission, spontaneous
    cessation of alcohol or drug misuse, dependence, or problems without benefit of therapy or a mutual-help group; also called natural remission.

    Epidemiological data suggest that many remissions occur without therapy or mutual-help group membership. Some prefer the term “natural recovery”, to avoid the disease connotations of the word remission.

    Residential treatment center (RTC)
    sometimes referred to as “rehab” or residential rehabilitation is a live-in health care facility providing therapy for substance abuse, mental illness, or other behavioral problems.

    Resistance
    opposition to something, or the ability to withstand it. For example, some forms of staphylococcus are resistant to treatment with antibiotics.

    Reuptake
    the process by which a neurotransmitter returns form the receptor site to the synaptic knob

    Reversed tolerance
    state produced by a particular drug, process, or individual, such that lower dosages of the same drug produce the same amount and quality of the desired or observed effect that previously was observed only with higher dosages.

    Reward pathway
    a specialized network of neurons in the brain that produce and regulate pleasure associated with eating, drinking, and sex. These neurons use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Alcohol actives the reward pathway. Alcohol abusers and alcoholics use alcohol to avoid pain (lack of pleasure) associated with withdrawal.

    Reward pathway
    a specialized network of neurons in the brain that produce and regulate pleasure associated with eating, drinking, and sex. These neurons use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Alcohol actives the reward pathway. Alcohol abusers and alcoholics use alcohol to avoid pain (lack of pleasure) associated with withdrawal.

    Rohypnol
    Infrequently used for surgical purposes in veterinary settings but may also be used as a “rape” drug.

    Rohypnol
    the trade name for flunitrazepam, which has been abused as a “date rape” drug. Rohypnol produces sedative-hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and amnesia. It can produce physical and psychological dependence and can be lethal when mixed with alcohol and/or other depressants. It is not approved for use in the US and its importation is banned.

    Roofies
    street term for Rohypnol.

    Rush
    A surge of euphoric pleasure that rapidly follows administration of a drug.

    Rush
    an immediate, intense, pleasurable effect that follows intravenous injection of certain drugs (e.g. heroin, morphine, amphetamine, cocaine, propoxyphene).

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