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    Glossary

    Glossary – O

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    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    An anxiety disorder where individuals are unable to stop thinking the same thoughts or performing the same tasks over and over again. A common obsessive-compulsive disorder is frequent hand washing. Individuals attempt to alleviate their fear or anxiety by performing certain rituals (e.g.., washing hands 63 times before leaving the house). These rituals are to the extent that they have trouble carrying on with their daily activities.

    Operant conditioning
    operant conditioning follows the US psychologist Edward Thorndike’s (1874-1949) law of effect’ (1911): that responses become more frequent if followed by satisfying consequences but less frequent if followed by aversive consequences. Skinner showed that a rat which is rewarded when it operates on’ its environment by pressing a lever will increase its number of lever-presses. It is therefore associating the stimulus (reinforcement) with its own behavior (response). This is referred to as S-R conditioning. (see also, Classical Conditioning, Conditioning)

    Opiate (1)
    one of a group of alkaloids derived from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) with the ability to induce analgesia, euphoria, and, in higher doses, stupor, coma, and respiratory depression. The term opiate excludes synthetic opioids. See also: opioid

    Opiate (2)
    any substance, natural or synthetic, that is related in action to morphine and binds to the same, or some of the same, receptors. Some writers use it just to mean opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin – the natural ingredients of the poppy and their derivatives, excluding the synthetic narcotic analgesics.

    Opiates
    Any ingredients of opium or chemical derivatives of these ingredients. The term generally refers to opium, morphine, codeine, thebaine, and heroin.

    Opioid
    A natural or synthetic psychoactive chemical that binds to opioid receptors in the brain and body. Natural opioids include morphine and heroin (derived from the opium poppy) as well as opioids produced by the human body (e.g., endorphins); semi-synthetic or synthetic opioids include analgesics such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and fentanyl.

    Opioid use disorder
    A problematic pattern of opioid drug use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress that includes cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms as defined by the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-V) criteria. Diagnosis of an opioid use disorder can be mild, moderate, or severe depending on the number of symptoms a person experiences. Tolerance or withdrawal symptoms that occur during medically supervised treatment are specifically excluded from an opioid use disorder diagnosis.

    Opioid, endogenous
    the generic term applied to alkaloids from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), their synthetic analogues, and compounds synthesized in the body, which interact with the same specific receptors in the brain, have the capacity to relieve pain, and produce a sense of well-being (euphoria). The opium alkaloids and their synthetic analogues also cause stupor, coma, and respiratory depression in high doses.

    Opioids
    the generic term applied to alkaloids from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), their synthetic analogues, and compounds synthesized in the body, which interact with the same specific receptors in the brain, have the capacity to relieve pain, and produce a sense of well-being (euphoria). The opium alkaloids and their synthetic analogues also cause stupor, coma, and respiratory depression in high doses.

    Over time, morphine and its analogues induce tolerance and neuroadaptive changes that are responsible for rebound hyper excitability when the drug is withdrawn. The withdrawal syndrome includes craving, anxiety, dysphoria, yawning, sweating, piloerection (waves of gooseflesh), lacrimation, rhinorrhea, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, muscle aches, and fever. With short-acting drugs such as morphine or heroin, withdrawal symptoms may appear within 8-12 hours of the last dose of the drug, reach a peak at 48-72 hours, and clear after 7-10 days. With longer-acting drugs such as methadone, onset of withdrawal symptoms may not occur until 1-3 days after the last dose; symptoms peak between the third and eight day and may persist for several weeks, but are generally milder than those that follow morphine or heroin withdrawal after equivalent doses.

    Over-the-counter (OTC)
    see pharmaceutical drug.

    Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
    medicinal drugs available to the public without the requirement of a prescription. They are often referred to as nonprescription drugs.

    Over-the-Counter drugs
    drugs legally sold without a prescription.

    Overdose
    the use of any drug in such an amount that acute adverse physical or mental effects are produced. Deliberate overdose is a common means of suicide and attempted suicide. In absolute numbers, overdoses of licit drugs are usually more common than those of illicit drugs. Overdose may produce transient or lasting effects, or death; the lethal dose of a particular drug varies with the individual and with circumstances. See also: intoxication; poisoning

    Oxycontin
    a time-release form of oxycodone, used in the treatment of chronic pain.

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