Glossary – M
treatment of drug dependence by prescription of a substitute drug for which cross-dependence and cross-tolerance exist. The term is sometimes in reference to a less hazardous form of the same drug used in the treatment. The goals of maintenance therapy are to eliminate or reduce use of a particular substance, especially if it is illegal, or to reduce harm from a particular method of administration, the attendant dangers to health (e.g. from needle sharing) and the social consequences. Maintenance therapy is often accompanied by psychological and other treatment.
Maladaptive behavior is a psychiatric term used to describe a person who engages and acts on self-destructive behavioral patterns. Those who are afflicted with maladaptive behavior are individuals who do not see reality for what it is or simply do not care that their way of thinking is flawed.
Typically, those who display maladaptive behaviors hold onto false beliefs or attitudes, no matter how much evidence shows they are actively choosing to act self-destructively. It should also be known that those who display these negative behavioral tendencies are in need of immediate therapeutic intervention.
Unfortunately, maladaptive behavior is a disorder that plagues millions of troubled teens. However, there are many therapeutic programs that offer substantial psychiatric treatments to those afflicted. Moreover, residential treatment programs are the most effective choice for suffering teenage girls.
a mood disorder characterized by agitation, bursts of energy, and impulsiveness.
a class of first-generation antidepressants that reduce the effects of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain.
abbreviation for 3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine . See: Ecstasy .
a theory of drug abuse or addiction in which the addiction is seen as a medical, rather than as a social problem.
Member assistance program (MAP)
institutional programs for working or employees to help them with alcohol or other drug-abuse problems, set up by established unions within the organization and tailored to meet the needs of union members
induces a psychedelic state similar to those produced by LSD and psilocybin, but with unique characteristics. Subjective effects may include altered thinking processes, an altered sense of time and self-awareness, and closed- and open-eye visual phenomena.
hallucinogenic substance found in the peyote cactus in the south- western United States and northern Mexico.
all the chemical reactions that enable the body to function. Nutrients and materials are broken down into stored energy or into usable compounds. The biological transformation of ethanol in acetaldehyde and other products.
a synthetic opiate. The most common medical use for methadone is as a legal substitute for heroin in treatment programs for drug addiction. It is usually administered to participating addicts daily in the form of a green, tasteless liquid at a drug treatment clinic. See also: Methadone treatment program.
a synthetic opiate useful in treating heroin abuse.
a treatment program for heroin abusers in which heroin is replaced by the long-term intake of methadone.
a nonbarbituate depressant drug once used as a sedative. Brand name is Quaalude.
Misuse, drug or alcohol
use of a substance for a purpose not consistent with legal or medical guidelines, as in the non-medical use of prescription medications. The term is preferred by some to abuse in the belief that it is less judgmental.
pure form of MDMA (ecstasy), usually a free powder or in capsules. Oftentimes MDMA is sold as molly. Should be white in color (when it’s pure) but is more often beige or yellow-brown, and sometimes brown or rarely gray.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
an enzyme that breaks down dopamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin at their respective synapse in the brain.
major sedative and pain-relieving drug found in opium, being approximately 10% of the crude opium exudates.
in medicine, having to do with the movement of a part of the body. Something that produces motion or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve cell that conveys an impulse to a muscle causing it to contract. The term “motor” today is also applied to a nerve that signals a gland to secrete. Motor is as opposed to sensory.
treatment programs in which a combination of detoxification, psychotherapy, and group support is implemented.
Multiple drug use
the use of more than one drug or type of drug by an individual, often at the same time or sequentially, and usually with the intention of enhancing, potentiating, or counteracting the effects of another drug. The term is also used more loosely, to include the unconnected use of two or more drugs by the same person. It carries the connotation of illicit use, though alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the substances most frequently used in combination with others in industrialized societies.
a group in which participants support each other in recovering or maintaining recovery from alcohol or other drug dependence or problems, or from the effects of another’ s dependence, without professional therapy or guidance. Prominent groups in the alcohol and other drug field include Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Al- Anon (for members of alcoholics’ families), which are among a wide range of twelve-step groups based on a non-denominational, spiritual approach.
Myopathy, alcohol- or drug-related
a disorder of skeletal muscle related to the use of alcohol and other drugs. The disorder can be acute (when it is termed acute rhabdomyolysis), with extensive necrosis of muscles, which are tender and swollen, and may be complicated by myoglobinuria and renal failure. The chronic form presents with insidious weakness and wasting of the proximal muscles.