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    Glossary – I

    Click on a letter to view Glossary definitions beginning with that letter.

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    Idiosyncratic reaction
    individual, unpredictable, and non-dose-dependent response to any substance: drowsiness or euphoria, flushing, carpopedal spasms (pseudo- tetanus), apnoea, etc.

    injecting drug user or use. Injections may be intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous (IV), etc. ‘” See also: administration, method of

    Illicit drugs
    drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal.

    diminished ability such as when alcohol decreases motor function or interferes with thinking. Inability to abstain: A form of impaired control over the use of a substance, such that there is an inability or unwillingness to refrain from substance use.

    Impulse control
    The medical dictionary provides readers with the following definition of impulse control : “The Psychology The degree to which a person can control the desire for immediate gratification or other; impulse control may be the single most important indicator of a person’s future adaptation in terms of number of friends, school performance, and future employment.”

    Impulse control is perhaps the most significant issue that plagues teens today. Without effective impulse control, a teen is at risk of engaging in harmful and reckless behaviors that could result in dire consequences. Troubled teens are a large demographic of adolescents who struggle with impulse control and require treatment to effectively and safely make a change for the better.

    Impulsiveness refers to an act of behavior conducted under little or no thought, but rather on impulse. Impulsiveness is can be a dangerous behavior, and should be treated with therapy if the individual consistently displays impulse control issues.

    A person who chronically suffers from impulsiveness is unpredictable and a danger to his or her environment if therapeutic treatment is not sought after. Although impulsiveness, is a dangerous behavior, it can be treated and controlled with the right therapy and treatment. However, if left uncontrolled or untreated, impulsiveness can ruin the life of an individual and even those around him/her.

    Additionally, treatment should be the number one priority for the parents or family of an individual who suffers from impulsivity. Whether a young man or woman struggles with impulsiveness because they are mentally ill, have little discipline, or simply don’t care about the consequences, but instead only desire instant gratification, there is hope for recovery. With adequate therapeutic restoration and rehabilitation, impulsiveness can be kept under control.

    Individual academic treatment
    Individual academic treatment is a specialized academic program designed to teach students individually, as opposed to clumping students together in an educational setting.

    Adolescents are their own unique person. It is for this reason, that teens should also receive their own, personal academic curriculum. Teens learn at different speeds, through different methods, and, therefore, should be given an academic curriculum specifically created with their learning needs in mind.

    Unfortunately, traditional schooling does not provide students with individual academic treatment. Typically, traditional teaching methods require students to learn as a group. Consequently, some of the teens in this group fall behind, due to their individual learning needs getting neglected. Teens, who fall behind, are then singled out, leaving them with the stigma of being ‘stupid’ or slow.’ This unfortunate misunderstanding results in many teens feeling inadequate. These students may then be apprehensive to even attempt to learn and grow academically.

    Fortunately, teens, who would greatly benefit from the services of individual academic treatment, are able to receive their education at various facilities. These specialized treatment centers include, residential treatment centers, group homes, and therapeutic boarding schools for troubled teens.

    the state of being intoxicated. The term usually implies a habitual pattern of drunkenness, and was sometimes used where “alcoholism” or “alcohol dependence” would now be used, implying a disease condition.

    commonly used to gain an altered state and have been frequently abused. Solvents are the most popular form of inhalant. Side effects can be severe. Brain damage from inhalants is frequent. Health risks are severe and interaction with other drugs is sometimes fatal.

    as related to behavior, restraint on instinctive impulses.

    harm or hurt. The term “injury” may be applied in medicine to damage inflicted upon oneself as in a hamstring injury or by an external agent on as in a cold injury. The injury may be accidental or deliberate, as with a needle stick injury The term “injury” may be synonymous (depending on the context) with a wound or with trauma.

    Instrumental use
    referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug for a specific purpose other than getting “high.”

    Intensive psychiatric treatments
    Intensive psychiatric treatment can be described as the personal treatment given to an individual who suffers from a mental sickness or illness in a way that is very thorough or vigorous. Intensive psychiatric treatment, although specialized, is subjective and unique to particular systems and facilities that provide treatment. In other words, intensive treatment that may work for one type of person, may not be the most appropriate style of treatment for others.

    Intensive psychiatric treatments are necessary for individuals who suffer from mental and behavioral disorders. Moreover, those who suffer consequences and personal loss due to their behaviors or mental condition are in need of immediate psychiatric treatment that is specialized for their personal, behavioral and mental afflictions.

    Internal medicine
    a medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment of adults. A physician who specializes in internal medicine is referred to as an internist.

    Subspecialties of internal medicine include allergy and immunology, cardiology (heart), endocrinology (hormone disorders), hematology (blood disorders), infectious diseases, gastroenterology (diseases of the gut), nephrology (kidney diseases), oncology (cancer), pulmonology (lung disorders), and rheumatology (arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders).

    Interpersonal relationships
    developing and maintaining social relations between people. Between persons, Social (interpersonal skills).

    An intervention is a process of intervening in a person’s negative behavioral pattern. The intentions of intervening in the life of a person are so that they can overcome their negative thought process and cease to act on negative behaviors. Additionally, interventions are common actions loved ones act on if an individual is addicted to harmful substances or behaviors.

    An intervention can come in many forms. By simply sitting an individual down and discussing their self-destructive behaviors and how these behaviors are effecting them is just one way a person can intervene. However, some individuals with severe mental or behavioral disorders may need more of an intense approach to intervention, such as seeking professional treatment for their self-destructive tendencies.

    a condition that follows the administration of a psychoactive substance and results in disturbances in the level of consciousness, cognition, perception, judgment, affect, or behavior, or other psychophysiological functions and responses. The disturbances are related to the acute pharmacological effects of, and learned responses to, the substance and resolve with time, with complete recovery, except where tissue damage or other complications have arisen. The term is most commonly used with regard to alcohol use: its equivalent in everyday speech is “drunkenness”. Alcohol intoxication is manifested by such signs as facial flushing, slurred speech, unsteady gait, euphoria, increased activity, volubility, disorderly conduct, slowed reactions, impaired judgment and motor in coordination, insensibility, or stupefaction.

    Intoxication is highly dependent on the type and dose of drug and is influenced by an individual’s level of tolerance and other factors. Frequently, a drug is taken in order to achieve a desired degree of intoxication. The behavioral expression of a given level of intoxication is strongly influenced by cultural and personal expectations about the effects of the drug.

    Intoxication, pathological
    a syndrome characterized by extreme excitement with aggressive and violent features and, frequently ideas of persecution, after consumption of disproportionately little alcohol. It lasts for several hours and terminates with the patient falling asleep. There is usually complete amnesia for the episode. A controversial entity primarily used in a forensic context. see also: intoxication Synonym: idiopathic intoxication

    Involuntary smoking
    involuntary inhalation of the cigarette smoke of others. Sometimes referred to as second-hand smoke.

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