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    Glossary

    Glossary – E

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    Early intervention
    a therapeutic strategy that combines early detection of hazardous or harmful substance use and treatment of those involved. Treatment is offered or provided before such time as patients might present of their own volition and in many cases before they are aware that their substance use might cause problems. It is directed particularly at individuals who have not developed physical dependence or major psychosocial complications. Early intervention is therefore a pro-active approach, which is initiated by the health worker rather than the patient. The first stage consists of a systematic procedure for early detection. There are several approaches: routine enquiry about use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in the clinical history, and the use of screening tests, for example, in primary health care settings. Supplementary questions are then asked in order to confirm the diagnosis. The second component, treatment, is usually brief and takes place in the primary health care setting (lasting on average 5-30 minutes). Treatment may be more extensive in other settings. See also: brief intervention

    Ecstasy
    referred to as the ultimate dance party drug Ecstasy acts acutely to increase energy, provide a sense of camaraderie and attachment, increase sexual desire, and induce euphoria. Besides sexual side effects, it produces increased heart rate, chills, sweating, dehyration, and various strictly psychiatric symptoms.

    A street name for 3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also called “Adam,” “ecstasy,” or “XTC” on the street, a synthetic, psychoactive (mind-altering) drug with hallucinogenic and amphetamine-like properties. Its chemical structure is similar to two other synthetic drugs, MDA and methamphetamine.

    Effective dose (ED)
    the minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population.

    Elimination half-life
    the length of time it takes for a drug to be reduced to 50% of its equilibrium level in the bloodstream

    Emergency department
    the department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medical and surgical care to patients arriving at the hospital in need of immediate care.

    Emotional disorder
    Emotional disorder is a broad category which is used commonly in educational settings, to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents.The most common emotional disorders include Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorder. Teens, who display characteristics of emotional disorders, are more susceptible to negative behaviors such as, selfishness, rebelliousness, and anger.

    As adolescence is already a difficult time, teens, who suffer from emotional or psychological disorders, may find navigating through adolescence to be near the impossible. It is for this reason that parents should seek professional therapeutic help if their child is showing symptoms of emotional disorder. If parents suspect their teen may be suffering from some type of emotional disorder, the services of a wilderness therapy programs will provide their child with adequate therapeutic restoration to their child.

    Emotional health
    Emotional health is a psychological term that refers to a person’s emotional well-being, and the status, good or bad, of their mental state. Emotional health is often overlooked because it can be difficult, at times, to diagnose those who suffer from various ailments.

    An individual’s mental state of well-being. Like physical health, emotional health can be damaged and requires professional and clinical treatment. Moreover, if a person’s mental health is damaged, the afflicted individual should treat their malady like they would a physical one and seek medical treatment immediately.

    Psychological treatment can provide adults and children, who suffer from poor emotional health, with the foundation of rehabilitative fundamentals necessary for achieving a full recovery.

    Emphysema
    a lung condition featuring an abnormal accumulation of air in the lung’s many tiny air sacs, a tissue called alveoli. As air continues to collect in these sacs, they become enlarged, and may break, or be damaged and form scar tissue. Emphysema is strongly associated with smoking cigarettes, a practice that causes lung irritation. It can also be associated with or worsened by repeated infection of the lungs, such as is seen in chronic bronchitis.

    Employee assistance program (EAP)
    corporate or institutional programs for workers or employees to help them with alcohol or other drug-abuse problems.

    Enablers
    individuals whose behavior consciously or unconsciously encourages another persons continuation in a pattern of alcohol or other drug abuse.

    Encephalopathy
    an inexact term referring to organic brain disorder of any degree. Some authors use the term in a more restricted sense to refer to chronic brain disease with irreversible pathological changes; others use it to describe an acute delirium. Still others use it for early signs of brain tissue dysfunction that are too subtle to warrant a definitive diagnosis. Alcoholic encephalopathy indicates that the damage to brain tissue damage is caused by or associated with alcohol use.

    Endorphins
    a class of chemical substances, produced in the brain and elsewhere in the body, that mimic the effects of morphine and other opiate drugs

    Environment
    The environment, social context, sociocultural context, or milieu, refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact.

    A person’s environment is highly influential. Their environment influences everything from the way a person thinks, what he/she likes/dislikes, and what that person does for recreation. This is especially true of adolescents.

    Generally speaking, an adolescent’s social environment is everything to them. What their peers and other adolescents think of them is an adolescent’s main concern. This problematic, inflated importance of their social status in their environment, an adolescent is easily influenced, which can lead to self-destructive behaviors. If it is the cool thing to do, regardless of whether or not it is self-harming, a teen may choose to display negative behaviors. They may do so, in hopes of pleasing other teens within their environment, or to further avoid scrutiny from their environment’s social hierarchy. In short, an adolescent’s environment may have a positive, or negative effect on their lives. Because of this, a teen should surround themselves with an environment made up of positive, fruitful and productive peers.

    Ethanol
    ethyl alcohol or the beverage type of alcohol.

    Euphoria
    an exaggerated feeling of well-being.

    Extracurricular activity
    Merriam Webster’s Dictionary defines extracurricular activity as an educational or productive activity not falling within the scope of the regular curriculum.

    Examples of extracurricular activities include : social clubs (drama, chess, film etc.), Community activities ( Commmunity theatre, event organizing etc), church activities, arts (theatre, music, dance, creative writing etc.), as well as the participation and the practice of organized sports. Extracurricular activities are crucial for a well-balanced, productive, teenage lifestyle. These varied activities act as a healthy distraction for teens, who might otherwise engage in unhealthy, self-destructive activities. Additionally, a well-balanced lifestyle requires an adolescent to participate in at least one extracurricular activity, with regularity.

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