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    Glossary

    Glossary – D

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    D-amphetamine
    shortened name for dextroamphetamine, a potent form of amphetamine marketed under the brand name Dexedrine

    Darvon
    brand name for propoxyphene: a synthetic opiate useful in treating heroin abuse.

    DEA
    Drug Enforcement Administration. Division of the U.S. Department of Justice.

    Decriminalization
    the repeal of laws or regulations that define a behavior, product, or condition as criminal. The term is used in connection with both illicit drugs and the crime of public drunkenness (see inebriate). It is sometimes also applied to a reduction in the seriousness of a crime or of the penalties the crime attracts, as when possession of marijuana is downgraded from a crime that warrants arrest and a jail term to an infraction to be punished with a warning or fine. Thus decriminalization is often distinguished from legalization, which involves the complete repeal of any definition as a crime, often coupled with a governmental effort to control or influence the market for the affected behavior or product.

    Deinstitutionalization
    the social policy of encouraging mentally ill individuals to be treated in community-based programs rather than in large mental hospitals.

    Delerium (1)
    an acute organic cerebral syndrome characterized by concurrent disturbances of consciousness, attention, perception, orientation, thinking, memory, psychomotor behavior, emotion, and the sleep-wake cycle. Duration is variable, from a few hours to a few weeks and the degree of severity ranges from mild to very severe. An alcohol-induced withdrawal syndrome with delirium is known as delirium tremens.

    Delerium (2)
    A sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometimes associated with hallucinations and hyperactivity, in which the patient is inaccessible to normal contact. Symptoms may include inability to concentrate and disorganized thinking evidenced by rambling, irrelevant, or incoherent speech. There may be a reduced level of consciousness, sensory misperceptions and illusions, disturbances of sleep, drowsiness, disorientation to time, place, or person, and problems with memory.

    Delerium tremens (1)
    a sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometimes associated with hallucinations and hyperactivity, in which the patient is inaccessible to normal contact. Symptoms may include inability to concentrate and disorganized thinking evidenced by rambling, irrelevant, or incoherent speech. There may be a reduced level of consciousness, sensory misperceptions and illusions, disturbances of sleep, drowsiness, disorientation to time, place, or person, and problems with memory.

    Delerium tremens (2)
    a neurological symptom of alcohol withdrawal seen in chronic alcoholism, with includes symptoms of psychosis. These may include uncontrollable trembling, hallucinations, severe anxiety, sweating, and sudden feelings of terror. Delirium tremens can be both frightening and, in severe cases, deadly. Treatment includes observation, comfort care, and in some cases medication.

    Delirium tremens (DTs)
    the less common of two general reactions to the cessation of drinking in an alcoholic. It is characterized by extreme disorientation and confusion, fever hallucinations, and other symptoms.

    Delusions
    ideas that have no foundation in reality.

    Demand reduction
    a general term used to describe policies or programs directed at reducing the consumer demand for psychoactive drugs. It is applied primarily to illicit drugs, particularly with reference to educational, treatment, and rehabilitation strategies, as opposed to law enforcement strategies that aim to interdict the production and distribution of drugs (supply reduction). Compare harm reduction

    Denial
    the refusal to admit to one’s self the truth or reality, i.e. a person who refuses to admit that they have a problem with alcohol or drugs.

    Dependence
    as a general term, the state of needing or depending on something or someone for support or to function or survive. As applied to alcohol and other drugs, the term implies a need for repeated doses of the drug to feel good or to avoid feeling bad. In DSM- IIIR, dependence is defined as “a cluster of cognitive, behavioral and physiologic symptoms that indicate a person has impaired control of psychoactive substance use and continues use of the substance despite adverse consequences.

    Dependence potential
    The propensity of a substance, as a consequence of its pharmacological effects on physiological or psychological functions, to give rise to dependence on that substance. Dependence potential is determined by those intrinsic pharmacological properties that can be measured in animal and human drug testing procedures See also: abuse liability

    Dependence syndrome
    a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that may develop after repeated substance use. Typically, these phenomena include a strong desire to take the drug, impaired control over its use, persistent use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and a physical withdrawal reaction when drug use is discontinued.

    Depressants
    any agent that suppresses, inhibits, or decreases some aspects of central nervous system (CNS) activity. The main classes of CNS depressants are the sedatives/hypnotics, opioids, and neuroleptics. Examples of depressant drugs are alcohol, barbiturates, anesthetics, benzodiazepines, opiates and their synthetic analogues.

    Depression
    an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts that affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be wished away. People with a depressive disease cannot merely “pull themselves together” and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years.

    Designer drugs
    A novel chemical substance with psychoactive properties, synthesized specifically for sale on the illicit market and to circumvent regulations on controlled substances. In response, these regulations now commonly cover novel and possible analogues of existing psychoactive substances. The term was coined in the 1980s.

    Detoxification
    the process of drug withdrawal in which the body is allowed to rid itself of the chemical effects of the drug in the bloodstream.

    Dextromethorphan (DXM)
    a popular non-narcotic ingredient used in over-the-counter couch remedies. The “DM” designation on these preparations refers to dextromethorphan.

    Diacetylmorphine
    alternative generic names for heroin. See also: opioid

    Diagnostic instrument
    in general medical usage, any machine or instrument, and by extension-any clinical procedure or interview schedule used for the determination of an individual’s medical condition or the nature of his or her illness. With respect to substance use and other behavioral disorders, the term refers principally to lists of questions oriented to diagnosis, including structured interview schedules that can be administered by trained lay interviewers. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) are examples of such schedules, which allow diagnosis of psychoactive substance use disorders as well as a range of other mental disorders. See also: screening instrument

    Diagnostic test
    a procedure or instrument used in conjunction with observation of behavior patterns, history , and clinical examination to help in establishing the presence, nature, and source of, or vulnerability to, a disorder, or to measure some specified characteristic of an individual or group.

    Diazepam
    a common benzodiazepine. Brand name is valium.

    Disability (alcohol- or drug-related)
    any problem, illness, or other consequence of harmful use, acute intoxication, or dependence that inhibits an individual’s capacity to act normally in the context of social or economic activities. Examples include the decline in social functioning or physical activity that accompanies alcoholic cirrhosis, drug-related HIV infection, or alcohol- related traumatic injury. See also: alcohol-related problem; drug-related problem

    Disease model
    a theory of alcoholism endorsed by the AMA, APA, The World Health Organization, NCADD and AA, in which alcoholism is seen as a disease rather than a psychological or social problem.

    Disinhibition
    a state of release from internal constraints on an individual’s behavior. Disinhibition may result from the administration of a psychoactive drug. The belief that a psychoactive drug, especially alcohol, gives rise pharmacologically to uninhibited behavior, is often expressed in the 19th century physiological formulation of the shutting off of inhibitions located in “the higher centers of the mind”.

    Disorder (psychoactive substance use)
    a generic term used to denote mental, physical, and behavioral conditions of clinical relevance and associated with the use of psychoactive substances. The disorders include acute intoxication, harmful use, dependence syndrome, withdrawal syndrome, psychotic disorders, and amnesic syndrome.

    Disorganization
    a state of impaired and inefficient emotional organization resulting from a person’s inability to cope with internal conflicts and external reality

    Dissociative drugs
    These drugs vary by schedule. Several are popular for abuse. Dissociative drugs induce sedative effects, along with a sense of disconnection from self and others. These drugs can induce mild hallucinations.

    Distillation
    a process that used heat to purify or separate a fraction of a complex substance. Various components of the mixture are collected as gases and condense to liquids. Liquors are produced through distillation.

    Distribution phase
    the process by which ethanol spreads from the blood to all tissues and fluids in proportion to their relative water content.

    Disulfarim (Antabuse)
    The prototypic alcohol-sensitizing drug, prescribed to assist in maintaining abstinence from alcohol. Disulfiram inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and, in the presence of alcohol, causes accumulation of acetaldehyde and an aversive facial flushing reaction, accompanied by nausea, dizziness, and palpitations. These effects are sometimes termed “the Antabuse reaction”.

    Diversion program
    a program of treatment or re-education for individuals referred from criminal courts (criminal diversion) after being charged with driving under the influence of alcohol (drinking-driver diversion) or another drug, with the sale or use of drugs (drug diversion), or with a general crime not defined in terms of drugs or alcohol. In strict legal use of the term, individuals are assigned to diversion programs in lieu of prosecution, which is usually held in abeyance pending successful completion of the diversion program. “Diversion” is also used more broadly for any pattern of referral from the court at any stage of processing, including as a sentence or condition of probation.

    Dizziness
    painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of vision, the brain, balance (vestibular) system of the inner ear, and gastrointestinal system. Dizziness is a medically indistinct term which laypersons use to describe a variety of conditions ranging from lightheadedness, unsteadiness to vertigo.

    Dopamine
    a neurotransmitter in the brain whose activity is related to emotionality and motor control

    Dosage
    the quantity of drug that is taken into the body, typically measured in terms of milligrams (mg) or micrograms (ug).

    Double blind
    a procedure in drug research in which neither the individual administering a chemical substance nor the individual receiving it knows whether the substance is the drug being evaluated or an active placebo

    Downers
    barbiturates, tranquilizers, alcohol, and depressants.

    Drinking
    ingestion of a beverage; specifically, in the present context, of an alcoholic beverage.

    Drinking and driving
    the generally favored term for the criminal action of driving a vehicle with a blood alcohol level over a specified limit. The term “drinking and driving” includes, but is not limited to, drunk driving, driving under the influence (DUI), and driving while intoxicated (DWI).

    Drinking, binge
    a pattern of heavy drinking that occurs in an extended period set aside for the purpose. In population surveys, the period is usually defined as more than one day of drinking at a time. The terms “bout drinking” and “spree drinking” are also used for the activity, and “drinking bout” for the occasion. A binge drinker or bout drinker is one who drinks predominantly in this fashion, often with intervening periods of abstinence. Synonyms: bout drinking; spree drinking

    Drinking, controlled
    drinking that is moderated to avoid intoxication or hazardous use. The term is applied especially when there is a reason to question the ability to drink in a controlled fashion at all times, as in the case of individuals who have exhibited signs of alcohol dependence or harmful drinking. When applied to the use of other psychoactive substance, the analogous term “controlled drug use” refers to the maintenance of regular, non- compulsive substance use that does not interfere with ordinary functioning, and to methods of use that minimize untoward drug effects. Compare impaired control. See also: drinking, moderate

    Drinking, escape
    Drinking motivated by the desire or need to escape an unpleasant mood or situation. Cognate terms are: personal-effects reasons (vs: social); use of alcohol for coping; negative-affect drinking.

    Drinking, excessive
    currently a non-preferred term for a pattern of drinking considered to exceed some standard of moderate drinking or acceptability. Hazardous drinking is a rough equivalent in current use.

    Drinking, heavy
    a pattern of drinking that exceeds some standard of moderate drinking or— more equivocally—social drinking. Heavy drinking is often defined in terms of exceeding a certain daily volume (e.g. three drinks a day) or quantity per occasion (e.g. five drinks on an occasion, at least once a week).See also: drinking, excessive; standard drink drinking, inveterate See alcoholization.

    Drinking, moderate
    an inexact term for a pattern of drinking that is by implication contrasted with heavy drinking. It denotes drinking that is moderate in amount and does not cause problems. Sometimes, moderate drinking is also contrasted with light drinking. See also: drinking, controlled; drinking, excessive; drinking, heavy; drinking

    Drinking, problem
    drinking that results in problems, individual or collective, health or social. A problem drinker is a person whose drinking has resulted in health or social problems.

    Formulations that avoid the labeling inherent in the term include “drinking-related problems” and “drinking problems” (see alcohol-related problems). The term “problematic drinking” has been used by some to cover the related concept of drinking that has the potential to cause problems (roughly equivalent to hazardous use of alcohol

    Drug
    a chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning.

    Drug abuse
    Drug abuse is defined as the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs. Once considered as a taboo, drug use and abuse is now a rising dangerous and fatal epidemic that affects the entire nation. Drug abuse has made it’s way into our youth’s pop culture and has destroyed the lives of countless teens. Hard drugs such as, cocaine, heroin, ecstasy, ketamine and methamphetamine are becoming increasingly more popular among teens.

    Teens, who participate in drug abuse, are unaware of the long lasting effects and consequences that drug abuse brings. Teens who abuse harmful substances generally have the mindset of ” I’m just having fun, I’m not an addict.” Drug abusing teens feel as though they are simply participating in a phase of their life where it is acceptable to ‘experiment’ and they can quit whenever they choose to. This, however is hardly ever the case. Teens who abuse drugs as adolescents are only preparing to live the life of a drug addicted adult.

    If teens, who abuse drugs, don’t receive proper treatment, their lives will eminently deteriorate and fall to shambles. Not receiving proper rehabilitative treatment will exponentially increase a drug addicted teen’s chances of dying at an early age. Parents can trust in the services of partial hospitalization or day treatment for rehabilitating their addicted child.

    Drug control
    the regulation, by a system of laws and agencies, of the production, distribution, sale, and use of specific psychoactive drugs (controlled substances) locally, nationally, or internationally (see conventions, international drug). Alternatively, equivalent to drug policy (compare alcohol policy).

    Drug dependence
    A condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. In the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual’s life.

    Drug misuse
    use of any drug (legal or illegal) for a medical or recreational purpose when other alternatives are available, practical or warranted, or when drug use endangers either the user or others with whom he or she may interact.

    Drug misuse
    drug-taking behavior in which a prescription or over-the-counter drug is used inappropriately.

    Drug related problem
    any of the range of adverse accompaniments of drug use, particularly illicit drug use. “Related” does not necessarily imply causality. The term was coined by analogy with alcohol-related problem but is less used, since it is drug use itself, rather than the consequences, that tends to be defined as the problem; it can be used to refer to problems at an individual or societal level.

    Drug testing
    the analysis of body fluids (such as blood, urine, or saliva) or hair or other tissue for the presence of one or more psychoactive substances. Drug testing is employed to monitor abstinence from psychoactive substances in individuals pursuing drug rehabilitation programs, to monitor surreptitious drug use among patients on maintenance therapy, and where employment is conditional on abstinence from such substances.

    Drug tolerance
    a state of progressively decreased responsiveness to a drug.

    Dual diagnosis
    Dual diagnosis (also called co-occurring disorders, COD) is a disorder in which an individual suffers from a mental illness in addition to suffering from addiction to harmful substances. An individual who suffers from COD is incapable of handling his/her psychological ailments on their own. For this reason, it is imperative that individuals suffering from dual diagnosis receive immediate psychiatric treatment.

    Dual diagnosis
    a general term referring to comorbidity or the co-occurrence in the same individual of a psychoactive substance use disorder and another psychiatric disorder.

    DUI
    Driving Under the Influence of alcohol or an illicit substance – any substance, licit or illicit, if it impairs the driving function

    DWI
    Driving While Intoxicated.

    Dysfunctional use
    substance use that is leading to impaired psychological or social functioning, for example, loss of employment or marital problems.

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