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    Glossary – C

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    a xanthine, which is a mild central nervous system stimulant, vasodilator, and diuretic. Caffeine is found in coffee, chocolate, cola and some other soft drinks, and tea, in some cases with other xanthines such as theophylline or theobromine. Acute or chronic overuse (e.g. a daily intake of 500 mg or more) with resultant toxicity is termed caffeinism. Symptoms include restlessness, insomnia, flushed face, muscle twitching, tachycafdia, gastrointestinal disturbances including abdominal pain, pressured or rambling thought and speech, and sometimes exacerbation of pre-existing anxiety or panic states, depression, or schizophrenia.

    A naturally occurring plant that produces buds containing THC that is considered illegal in some states. A state of euphoria is attained by smoking the buds and/or secretions of the buds of the marijuana plant.

    Cannabis (1)
    the botanical name for the plant from which marijuana comes. Its full name is Cannabis sativa. Use of cannabis produces a mild sense of euphoria, as well as impairments in judgment and lengthened response time. Cannabis may be smoked or eaten.

    Cannabis (2)
    a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the marijuana (hemp) plant, Cannabis sativa. They include marijuana leaf (in street jargon: grass, pot, dope, weed, or reefers), bhang, ganja, or hashish (derived from the resin of the flowering heads of the plant), and hashish oil.

    Cannabis contains at least 60 cannabinoids, several of which are biologically active. The most active constituent is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and TH C and its metabolites can be detected in urine for several weeks after usage of cannabis (usually by smoking).

    Cannabis intoxication produces a feeling of euphoria, lightness of the limbs, and often social withdrawal. It impairs driving and the performance of other complex, skilled activities; it impairs immediate recall, attention span, reaction time, learning ability, motor co-ordination, depth perception, peripheral vision, time sense (the individual typically has a sensation of slowed time), and signal detection. Other signs of intoxication may include excessive anxiety, suspiciousness or paranoid ideas in some and euphoria or apathy in others, impaired judgment, conjunctival injection, increased appetite, dry mouth, and tachycardia. Cannabis is sometimes consumed with alcohol, a combination that is additive in its psychomotor effects.

    Case study
    a process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time

    Causal factors
    the antecedent conditions or cues that influence the outcome of a chemical dependency problem in an individual. Many schools of thought have theorized what these are, and while none agree wholeheartedly, most agree that environment, conditioning and genetics play a role.

    Certified Chemical Dependency Counselor.

    Central nervous system (CNS)
    the brain and spinal cord.

    Change process
    The change process is a psychology term that refers to the process of transforming one’s negative mental state into a positive one. A change process formerly takes place after an individual engages in some form of psychological treatment.

    There are many types of change processes that an individual can undergo. The level of difficulty in attempting a process of change depends on the individual, and what their personal afflictions are, specifically. For example, those who suffer from drug or alcohol dependency issues require the services of a rehabilitative treatment program and significant changes in lifestyle to successfully complete a change process.

    Troubled teens are a large demographic who are in need of severe lifestyle changes. Luckily for troubled adolescents and their parents, there are nearly countless options and levels of treatment that cater to teens who are in desperate need of a change process.

    Chemical dependence
    addiction or dependence on drugs/alcohol. Synonymous with substance abuse.

    the taking of heroin on an occasional basis.

    a major benxodiazepine drug for the treatment of anxiety. Brand name is Librium.

    an anti-psychotic (antischizophrenia) drug. Brand name is Thorazine.

    Chronic toxicicity
    the physical or psychological harm a drug might cause over a long period of use.

    Classical conditioning
    in classical conditioning, which was discovered by Pavlov, a light or sound is paired with a natural reinforcement. The response which was initially produced by the reinforcement becomes conditioned’ so that it occurs to the light or sound even when no reinforcement is given. This is therefore a matter of learning an association between two stimuli (the reinforcement and the light or sound) and is referred to as S-S conditioning.

    a person or organization using the services of a lawyer or other professional person or company

    CNS depressants
    A class of drugs that slow CNS function (also called sedatives and tranquilizers), some of which are used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders; includes barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

    Coca paste (Spanish: pasta de coca)
    the product of the first step in the process of extracting cocaine from coca leaves. It contains 50-90% cocaine sulfate and toxic impurities such as kerosene and sulfuric acid. It is smoked in South America with marijuana, with tobacco, or alone. Coca paste mixed with marijuana and/or tobacco is known as pitilIo in Bolivia and bazuco in Colombia.

    A powerful illegal drug that is very addictive (=it is difficult to stop taking it). It is usually sold in the form of a white powder that people breathe in through their noses. Cocaine is also called coke.

    Cocaine (1)
    An alkaloid obtained from coca leaves or synthesized from ecgonine or its derivatives. Cocaine hydrochloride was commonly used as a local anesthetic in dentistry ophthalmology, and ear, nose and throat surgery because its strong vasoconstrictor action helps to reduce local bleeding. Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant used non-medically to produce euphoria or wakefulness; repeated use produces dependence.

    Cocaine, or “coke”, is often sold as white, translucent, crystalline flakes or powder (“snuff”, “snow”), frequently adulterated with various sugars or local anesthetics. The powder is sniffed (“snorted”) and produces effects within 1-3 minutes that last for about 30 minutes. Cocaine may be ingested orally, often with alcohol, and combined opioid and cocaine users are likely to inject it intravenously. “Freebasing” refers to increasing the potency of cocaine by extracting pure cocaine alkaloid (the free base) and inhaling the heated vapors through a cigarette or water pipe. An aqueous solution of the cocaine salt is mixed with an alkali (such as baking soda), and the free base is then extracted into an organic solvent such as ether or hexane.

    The procedure is dangerous because the mixture is explosive and highly flammable. A simpler procedure, which avoids use of organic solvents, consists of heating the cocaine salt with baking soda; this yields “crack”.

    Cocaine psychosis
    a set of symptoms, including hallucinations, paranoia, and disordered thinking produced by chronic use of cocaine

    one of the three active ingredients in opium, used primarily to treat coughing.

    a mechanism whereby a person takes responsibility for actions of others and helps one avoid facing problems directly in order to preserve stability in a family relationship.

    the concept that individuals who live with a person who ahs an alcohol (or other drug) dependence suffer themselves from difficulties or self-image and impaired social independence.

    a relative, dose friend, or colleague of an alcohol- or drug-dependent person, whose actions are defined by the term as tending to perpetuate that person’s dependence and thereby retard the process of recovery.

    in strict usage, this term applies to the alcohols (other than ethanol}, aldehydes, and esters that are found in alcoholic beverages and contribute to the special aroma and taste of these drinks. However, “congener” is also used more loosely to mean any constituent of an alcoholic drink that imparts an aroma, taste, color, or other characteristic such as “body” to such a drink. Tannins and colorants are some of the compounds that have been so termed.

    relating to mental awareness and judgment.

    Cognitive Therapy
    a form of psychotherapy based on the belief that psychological problems are the products of faulty ways of thinking about the world. For example, a depressed patient may have come to see him- or herself as powerless to change in any way. The therapist assists the patient to identify these false ways of thinking and to avoid them.

    Cola nut

    the nut of an African tree of the Sterculiaceae family, containing caffeine and eaten socially in West Africa. A caffeine-bearing extract is widely used in mass-marketed carbonated cola drinks, some of which also contain an extract of coca leaves with the cocaine removed.

    The occurrence of two disorders or illnesses in the same person, also referred to as co-occurring conditions or dual diagnosis. Patients with comorbid illnesses may experience a more severe illness course and require treatment for each or all conditions.

    when applied to psychoactive substance use, the term refers to a powerful urge-attributed to internal feelings rather than external influences- to take the substance (or substances} in question. The substance user may recognize the urge as detrimental to well- being and may have a conscious intent to refrain. These feelings are less characteristic of alcohol and drug dependence than of the psychiatric syndrome of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    a change in behavior due to association between events. Conditioning is usually divided into two kinds: classical or Pavlovian; and operant or instrumental. Both involve the pairing of an event with reinforcement’, which may be positive’ (rewards of food, drink, or sex) or negative’ (punishment such as electric shock). In classical conditioning, which was discovered by Pavlov, a light or sound is paired with a natural reinforcement. The response which was initially produced by the reinforcement becomes conditioned’ so that it occurs to the light or sound even when no reinforcement is given. This is therefore a matter of learning an association between two stimuli (the reinforcement and the light or sound) and is referred to as S-S conditioning.

    Conduct disorder
    Conduct disorder is a self-destructive, childhood behavior, characterized by aggressive and self-harming activities that cause serious disruptions in a child’s life. Conduct disorder results in negative connotations in every aspect of a child’s life: school, home, and community ( church, social clubs, etc.) As this behavior is obvious to others, it should be easily diagnosed. After diagnosis, conduct disorder requires immediate, intensive psychiatric treatment.

    All children display some sort of rebellious traits, at one time or another. However, when a child consistently shows outright rebellion and disrespect, regardless of environmental structure, it is necessary for the child to undergo psychiatric treatment for their behaviors.

    Control, impaired
    diminished ability of an individual to control his or her use of a psychoactive substance in terms of onset, level, or termination. “Impaired capacity to control’ is a criterion for the dependence syndrome. Impaired control is distinguished from loss of control in that the latter implies that the phenomenon prevails at all times and in all circumstances.

    Control, loss of
    an inability to modulate the amount and frequency of psycho-active substance use. The inability to cease ingesting substances such as alcohol and cocaine once their initial effect has been experienced. In recent discussions of the dependence syndrome, the term “loss of control” has been replaced by impaired control.

    Controlled substances
    psychoactive substances and their precursors whose distribution is forbidden by law or limited to medical and pharmaceutical channels.

    Core classes
    Core classes are academic disciplines of study that are mandatory for a person to take and successfully pass to progress in their education, and eventually graduate. Due to the importance of core classes, students should especially concern themselves with learning the concepts and lessons of these classes, as core classes are the foundation of every phase of basic education.

    Core classes’ minimal requirements of basic education are made up of the following classes:

    -social science
    -mathematics (pre-algebra, algebra1, geometry and algebra 2,)
    -science (earth science, biology, chemistry, physics,)
    -language arts (American literature, creative writing).

    Core classes are individually made up of levels of varying difficulty. For example, mathematics is a core class that is made up numerous courses a high school student may or may not take within their academic lifetime. While the minimum requirement for a student in mathematics may be set, students are not limited to that level of learning. Moreover, a student can take additional courses that surpass their core curriculums minimum requirement, as well as college courses while still enrolled in high school.

    Core values
    Core values are an individual’s fundamental beliefs and guiding principals by which they live by. Core values are essential for dictating the way a person behaves and how an individual differentiates right from wrong.

    Crack cocaine
    The most potent stimulant of natural origin, a bitter addictive anesthetic (pain blocker) which is extracted from the leaves of the coca scrub (Erythroxylon coca) indigenous to the Andean highlands of South America. “Crack” or “rock” is alkaloid (free base) cocaine, an amorphous compound that may contain crystals of sodium chloride. It is beige in color. “Crack” refers to the crackling sound made when the compound is heated. An intense “high” occurs 4-6 seconds after crack is inhaled; an early feeling of elation or the disappearance of anxiety is experienced, together with exaggerated feelings of confidence and self-esteem.

    There is also impairment of judgment, and the user is thus likely to undertake irresponsible, illegal, or dangerous activities without regard for the consequences. Speech is pressured and may become disjointed and incoherent. Pleasurable effects last only 5-7 minutes, after which the mood rapidly descends into dysphoria, and the user is compelled to repeat the process in order to regain the exhilaration and euphoria of the “high”. Overdose appears to be more frequent with crack than with other forms of cocaine.

    Crack cocaine
    Chemically purified, very potent cocaine in pellet form that is smoked through a glass pipe and is considered highly and rapidly addictive.

    very strong desire for a psychoactive substance or for the intoxicating effects of that substance. Craving is a term in popular use for the mechanism presumed to underlie impaired control. It is thought by some to develop, at least partly, as a result of conditioned associations that evoke conditioned withdrawal responses. Craving may also be induced by the provocation of any physiological arousal state resembling an alcohol or drug withdrawal syndrome.

    Crisis intervention
    intervention provided when a crisis exists to the extent that on usual coping resources threaten individual or family functioning.

    Cross dependence (1)
    Condition in which one drug can prevent the withdrawal symptoms associated with physical dependence on a different drug.

    Cross dependence (2)
    a pharmacological term used to denote the capacity of one substance (or class of substances) to suppress the manifestations of withdrawal from another substance or class and thereby maintain the physically dependent state. Note that “dependence” is normally used here in the narrower psycho- pharmacological sense associated with suppression of withdrawal symptoms. A consequence of the phenomenon of cross-dependence is that dependence on a substance is more likely to develop if the individual is already dependent on a related substance. For example, dependence on a benzodiazepine develops more readily in individuals already dependent on another drug of this type or on other substances with sedating effects such as alcohol and barbiturates.

    Cross tolerance (1)
    condition in which tolerance of one drug results in a lessened response to another drug.

    Cross tolerance (2)
    the development of tolerance to a substance, to which the individual has not previously been exposed, as a result of acute or chronic intake of another substance. The two substances usually, but not invariably, have similar pharmacological effects. Cross-tolerance is apparent when a dose of the novel substance fails to produce the expected effect.

    a phenomenon in which the tolerance that results from the chronic use of one drug induces a tolerance effect with regard to a second drug that has not been used before.

    Crystal meth
    Crystallized methamphetamine, a concentrated and highly potent form of methamphetamine with dangerous side effects. Also called: ice.

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