Glossary – B
in drug users’ jargon, an adverse effect of drug use, consisting of any mixture of the following: feelings of losing control, distortions of body image, bizarre and frightening hallucinations, fears of insanity or death, despair, suicidal[ thoughts, and strong negative effect. Physical symptoms may include sweating, palpitations, nausea, and paraesthesias.
Although adverse reactions of this type are usually associated with the use of hallucinogens, they may also be caused by the use of amphetamines and other psychomotor stimulants, anticholinergics, antihistamines, and sedatives/hypnotics.
primarily for sedation. Barbiturates can include some drugs prescribed as anti-anxiety medication, but are usually used for purposes of sedation and as tranquilizers. They have relatively high potential for abuse and dependence.
one of a group of central nervous system depressants that chemically are substituted derivatives of barbituric acid; examples are amobarbital, pento- barbital, phenobarbital, and secobarbital. They are used as antiepileptics, anaesthetics, sedatives, hypnotics, and less commonly-as anxiolytics or anti-anxiety drugs (see sedative/hypnotic). Acute and chronic use induces effects similar to those of alcohol.
Barbiturates have a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic dosage ratio and are often lethal in overdose. Tolerance to barbiturates develops rapidly and the liability for harmful use or dependence is high. Patients who use these drugs over long periods can become psychologically and physically dependent, even though the prescribed dose is never exceeded.
slang name for a 2mg xanax tablets. Derived from its long bar-like shape.The side effects of xanax, leave you feeling laid back, happy (“drunk”), with loss of memory, loss of perception, loss of motor control skills, and give some “the munchies.”
A treatment that helps change potentially self-destructing behaviors. It is also called behavioral modification or cognitive behavioral therapy. Medical professionals use this type of therapy to replace bad habits with good ones.
Street name for benzodiazepines
A class of prescription medication used to treat acute panic disorders and anxiety. They have a potential for abuse and addiction.
one of a group of structurally related drugs used mainly as sedatives/hypnotics, muscle relaxants, and anti-epileptics, and once referred to by the now- deprecated term “minor tranquillizers”. Benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to barbiturates. They do not suppress REM sleep to the same extent as barbiturates, but have a significant potential for physical and psychological dependence and misuse. Fatal overdose is rare with any benzodiazepine unless it is taken concurrently with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants.
Any of a number of pills primarily used for treatment of anxiety; a controlled substance in most countries; some of the more well known benzos are xanax, valium, ativan, and klonopin
a biological compound or attribute that provides evidence of the presence of, or vulnerability to, a specific disorder. In general, two types of marker are distinguished. A state marker identifies a current abnormality that most typically reflects a transient or reactive condition of the subject, such as the degree of activity of an underlying disorder or the recent use of a drug. A trait marker identifies a relatively stable and enduring attribute that reflects a continuing condition or, particularly in the case of a genetic marker, a predisposition to a specific disorder.
Most biological markers for alcohol and other drugs are state markers, and many simply reflect the recent history of consumption. A high blood alcohol level, for example, may identify a state of alcoholic intoxication, but it does not confirm alcohol dependence. Many, but not all, state markers for alcohol are in fact tests of hepatic damage. They are diagnostic tests of alterations in liver status secondary to chronic drinking, and not valid indicators of alcohol dependence. Other biological state markers for heavy alcohol consumption include de- sialotransferrin and acetaldehyde-protein adducts or antibodies to them.
the theoretical position that mental disorders are caused by abnormal biochemical processes in the brain.
a general model or approach stating that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social (socio-economical, socio-environmental, and cultural) factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or addiction
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder grapple with severe afflictions and issues. A person suffering from bipolar disorder struggles with extreme, unpredictable mood swings. Moreover, bipolar afflicted individuals will experience the highest of highs followed by the lowest of lows.
Troubled teens, who struggle with bipolar disorder, are at high risk for developing negative behaviors. Due to their erratic and turbulent tendencies, bipolar afflicted teens may experience hardships such as, destroying relationships with loved ones and friends, losing occupational opportunities or their employment altogether, or poor performances in academics. If left untreated, adolescents may develop suicidal thoughts and tendencies that could result in fatal consequences.
Fortunately, bipolar teens are able to receive therapeutic treatment for their severe disorders. With proper medication and therapeutic treatment, individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder are able to live the healthy, productive and fulfilling lives in spite of their mental condition.
a potent form of heroin, generally brownish in color, originating in Mexico.
acute anterograde amnesia, not associated with loss of consciousness, resulting from the ingestion of alcohol or other substances; a period of memory loss during which there is little if any recall of activities. When this occurs in the course of chronic alcohol ingestion, it is sometimes referred to as the ‘alcoholic palimpsest.”
Blood alcohol content (BAC)
the concentration of alcohol (ethanol) present in blood. The BAC is often extrapolated from measurements made on breath or urine or other biological fluids in which the alcohol concentration bears a known relationship to that in the blood.
a treatment strategy in which structured therapy of short duration (typically 5-30 minutes) is offered with the aim of assisting an individual to cease or reduce the use of a psychoactive substance or (less commonly) to deal with other life issues. It is designed in particular for general practitioners and other primary health care workers. To date, brief intervention-sometimes known as minimal intervention-has been applied mainly to cessation of smoking and as therapy for harmful use of alcohol. The rationale for brief intervention is that, even if the percentage of individuals who alter their substance use after a single intervention is small, the public health impact of large numbers of primary health care workers providing these interventions systematically is considerable. Brief intervention is often linked to systematic screening testing for hazardous and harmful substance use, particularly of alcohol and tobacco.
a synthetic opiate used in the treatment of heroin abuse. Brand names are Subutex and (in combination with naloxone) Suboxone.