Glossary

Glossary

Click on a letter to view Glossary definitions beginning with that letter.

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Abdominal pain
pain in the belly (the abdomen). Abdominal pain can come from conditions affecting a variety of organs. The abdomen is an anatomical area that is bounded by the lower margin of the ribs, the pelvic bone, and the flanks on each side. Although abdominal pain can arise from the tissues of the abdominal wall that surround the abdominal cavity (the skin and abdominal wall muscles), the term abdominal pain generally is used to describe pain originatin from organs within the abdominal cavity (from beneath the skin and muscles). These organs include the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

Absorption phase
the time immediately after consumption when blood alcohol concentration rises sharply.

Abstinence
refraining from drug use or (particularly) from drinking alcoholic beverages. Those who practice abstinence from alcohol are termed “abstainers” or “total abstainers”. The term “current abstainer” is usually defined as a person who has not consumed an alcoholic beverage in the preceding 12 months.

Abuse
(drug, alcohol, chemical, substance, or psychoactive substance) A group of terms in wide use but of varying meaning. In DSM-IIIR, “psychoactive substance abuse” is defined as “a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physical1y hazardous”.

Abuse liability
the propensity of a particular psychoactive substance to be susceptible to abuse, defined in terms of the relative probability that use of the substance will result in social, psychological, or physical problems for an individual or for society.

ACA, ACOA
see child of an alcoholic

Academic success
Academic success is an academic term, used to describe a person’s individual success in completing a personal, academic accomplishment. Academic Success is achieved in numerous ways, but typically marks a personal benchmark of one’s academic achievement.

Academic success is a subjective term, and one that is personally unique to the individual student and their academic goals. While one student’s success is based upon whether or not they earn the highest marks in the class, another student’s academic success may mean to achieve simply high enough marks to graduate.

Whether a person’s personal, academic success is to be accepted into an Ivy League school or earn their GED, one constant factor remains for all of those who earn academic success: It takes hard work. Only those who give their absolute best, day in and day out academically, are those who achieve, true academic success.

Acamprosate
A GABA-related drug for the treatment of alcoholism. Brand name is Campral.

Acetaldehyde
is a toxic substance, implicated in the alcohol flush reaction and in certain physical sequences of alcohol consumption. It is one of the first products of the body’s metabolism of alcohol. Acetaldehyde is then converted into carbon dioxide and water, which is excreted from the body.

Acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter active in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system, cerebral cortex , and peripheral somatic nerves.

Acid
slang for LSD, a hallucinogenic substance synthesized from Ergot, a fungus which grows on rye. There are no known adverse physical effects, however, it may cause psychological problems and/or flashbacks. It is commonly distributed in liquid form, gel tabs, sugar cubes and blotter-paper.

Acute toxicity
the physical or psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after the drug is ingested into the body.the physical or psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after the drug is ingested into the body.

Addict
someone who likes a particular activity very much and spends as much time as they can doing it

Addiction
a strong need that someone feels to regularly take an illegal or harmful drug; a strong need or wish to spend as much time as possible doing a particular activity

Addiction (1)
a chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain. Addiction is the same irrespective of whether the drug is alcohol, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, or nicotine. Every addictive substance induces pleasant states or relieves distress. Continued use of the addictive substance induces adaptive changes in the brain that lead to tolerance, physical dependence, uncontrollable craving and, all too often, relapse. Dependence is at such a point that stopping is very difficult and causes severe physical and mental reactions from withdrawal. The risk of addiction is in part inherited. Genetic factors, for example, account for about 40% of the risk of alcoholism. The genetic factors predisposing to addiction are not yet fully understood.

Addiction (2)
a maladaptive pattern of substance abuse leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one or more of the following, occurring within a 12- month period: a) recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home; b) recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous; c) recurrent substance-related legal problems; and/or d) continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance.

Addiction (3)
a state that involves a physical or psychological dependency on a drug or alcohol.

Addiction medicine
is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment of addiction.

Addiction treatment
Addiction treatment is a specialized treatment the assists those who suffer from harmful, self-destructive addictions. Addiction treatment usually referred to as, rehabilitation treatment, is a treatment facility that is staffed by psychiatric professionals. These psychiatric professionals are in charge of assisting addicts in reversing their dangerous, potentially fatal, disease of addiction.

Like traditional therapy, addiction treatment professionals treat client’s underlying issues that may be the cause of their addictive habits. By treating the problem at the source, addictive treatment specialists can eradicate the addiction permanently.

Troubled teens are a group of adolescents who typically suffer from some harmful addiction, or habitual practice. For this reason, it is imperative for any parent of an addicted teen to seek therapeutic care for their child.

Addiction, drug or alcohol
repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user (referred to as an addict) is periodically or chronically intoxicated, shows a compulsion to take the preferred substance (or substances), has great difficulty in voluntarily ceasing or modifying substance use, and exhibits determination to obtain psychoactive substances by almost any means. Typically, tolerance is prominent and a withdrawal syndrome frequently occurs when substance use is interrupted. The life of the addict may be dominated by substance use to the virtual exclusion of all other activities and responsibilities. The term addiction also conveys the sense that such substance use has a detrimental effect on society, as well as on the individual; when applied to the use of alcohol, it is equivalent to alcoholism. Addiction is a term of long-standing and variable usage. It is regarded by many as a discrete disease entity, a debilitating disorder rooted in the pharmacological effects of the drug, which is remorselessly progressive.

Addictive personality
an addictive personality is a trait, or set of traits, that develops in response to habit-forming drugs/alcohol or compulsive behavior (gambling, overeating/underrating, sex). It is not present prior to an addiction. One cannot predict an individual’s predisposition to develop an addiction by looking for an addictive personality.

Administration (method of route or mode of administration)
the way in which a substance is introduced into the body, such as oral ingestion, intravenous (IV), subcutaneous, or intramuscular injection, inhalation, smoking, or absorption through skin or mucosal surfaces, such as the gums, rectum, or genitalia.

Adolescent psychiatric treatment
Adolescent psychiatric treatments are treatments that are particularly specialized to treat the mental state of teenagers. Since adolescents process information differently than a fully grown adult, it is imperative that they receive treatment that best suits the needs of their mental capabilities as an individual. For this reason, it is crucial for parents to seek adolescent psychiatric treatments for their child if they require professional, psychological care.

Adolescent psychiatric treatments vary considerably in terms of what types of treatments are offered. There are simple one-on-one therapy sessions for teens who suffer from mild depression and other less severe afflictions, all the way to 24-hour treatment centers for teens who suffer from severe psychological issues.

Adverse drug reaction (ADR)
is an expression that describes harm associated with the use of given medications/drugs at a normal dose. In the context of substance use, the term includes unpleasant psychological or physical reactions to drug taking.

Affective disorder (residual, alcohol- or drug-related)
alcohol- or drug-induced changes in affect that persist beyond the period during which a direct effect of the alcohol or drug might reasonably be assumed to be operating.

Affective education
an approach in substance-abuse prevention programs that emphasized the building of self-esteem and an improved self-image.

Agonist
A chemical compound that mimics the action of a natural neurotransmitter and binds to the same receptor on nerve cells to produce a biological response.

Al-Anon
a support and discussion group for the relatives of people suffering from alcoholism usually operated in conjunction with Alcoholics Anonymous.

Alchoholic cardiomyopathy
a diffuse disorder of heart muscle seen in individuals with a history of hazardous consumption of alcohol, usually of at least 10 years’ duration. Patients typically present with biventricular heart failure; common symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion and while recumbent palpitations, ankle edema, and abdominal distension due to ascites.

Alchoholic cirrhosis
a severe form of alcoholic liver disease characterized by necrosis and permanent architectural distortion of the liver due to fibrous tissue formation and regeneratory nodules. Alcoholic cirrhosis occurs mainly in the 40-60-year age group, after at least 10 years of hazardous drinking. Individuals show symptoms and signs of hepatic decomposition such as ascites, ankle edema, jaundice, bruising, gastrointestinal hemorrhage from esophageal varices, and confusion or stupor due to hepatic encephalopathy. About 30% of patients are “well compensated” at the time of diagnosis and report nonspecific complaints such as abdominal pain, bowel disturbance, weight loss, and muscle wasting and weakness. Liver cancer is a late complication of cirrhosis in approximately 15% of cases.

Alchoholic dementia
a term of variable usage, most commonly implying a chronic or progressive disorder occurring as a result of harmful drinking, characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions, including memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgment. Consciousness is not clouded. The cognitive impairments are commonly accompanied by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior, or motivation.

Alcohol
in chemical terminology, alcohols are a large group of organic compounds derived from hydrocarbons and containing one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Ethanol (C2H5OH, ethyl alcohol) is one of this class of compounds, and is the main psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages. By extension the term “alcohol” is also used to refer to alcoholic beverages. Ethanol results from the fermentation of sugar by yeast. Under usual conditions, beverages produced by fermentation have an alcohol concentration of no more than 14%. In the production of spirits by distillation, ethanol is boiled out of the fermented mixture and re- collected as an almost pure condensate.

Alcohol abuse
a syndrome characterized primarily by the continued use of alcohol despite the drinker’s knowledge of having a persistent physical problem or some social or occupational difficulty.

Alcohol abuse (1)
the continued use of alcohol despite the development of social, legal, or health problems.

Alcohol abuse (2)
use of alcoholic beverages to excess, either on individual occasions (“binge drinking”) or as a regular practice. For some individuals-children or pregnant women, for example-almost any amount of alcohol use may be legally considered “alcohol abuse,” depending on local laws. Heavy alcohol abuse can cause physical damage and death.

Alcohol Addiction (alcohol dependence or alcoholism)
a chronic disease characterized by a strong craving for alcohol, a constant or periodic reliance on use of alcohol despite adverse physical illness when drinking is stopped, and the need for increasing amounts of alcohol to feel its effects.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
an enzyme found in the liver and stomach that helps break down alcohol into substances that can be excreted from the body. Specifically, ADH converts alcohol into acetaldehyde, which is then converted to carbon dioxide and water.

Alcohol dependence
a syndrome in which alcohol abuse involves a variety of significant physical, psychological, social, and behavioral problems.

Alcohol flush reaction
flushing of the face, neck, and shoulders after the ingestion of alcohol, often accompanied by nausea, dizziness, and palpitations. The reaction also occurs when alcohol is taken by people receiving treatment with alcohol sensitizing drugs such as disulfiram (Antabuse), which inhibit aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Alcohol policy
the aggregate of measures designed to control the supply of and/or affect the demand for alcoholic beverages in a population (usually national), including education and treatment programs, alcohol control, harm reduction strategies, etc. Implying the need for a coordination of governmental efforts from a public health and/or public order perspective.

Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS)
the more common of two general reactions to the cessation of alcohol consumption in an alcoholic. It is characterized by physiological discomfort, seizures, and sleep disturbances.

Alcohol-related disabilities
all problems, illnesses and other consequences secondary to alcohol use, intoxication, or dependence that diminish an individual’ s capacity for physical, social, or economic activity. See also: alcohol-related problem

Alcohol-related problems
any of the range of adverse accompaniments of drinking alcohol. See also: abuse (drug, alcohol, chemical. substance, or psychoactive substance) harmful use; misuse, drug or alcohol; problem drinking

Alcohol-sensitizing drug
a therapeutic agent prescribed to assist maintenance of abstinence from alcohol by producing unpleasant side-effects if alcohol is taken. The consequent accumulation of acetaldehyde causes a syndrome of facial flushing, nausea and vomiting, palpitations, and dizziness. Examples of alcohol-sensitizing drugs include disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium carbamide.

Alcoholic beverage
Liquid that contains alcohol (ethanol) and is intended for drinking. Almost all alcoholic beverages are prepared by fermentation, followed-in the case of spirits-by distillation. Beer and ale are produced from fermented grain (malted barley. rice, millet. etc.) often with hops added. Wines are produced from fermented fruits or berries, particularly grapes. Other traditional fermentation products are mead (from honey), cider (from apples or other fruits) sake (from rice). pulque (from the maquey cactus) and chicha (from maize).

Spirits vary in the underlying grain or fruit raw material on which they are based: for instance, vodka is based on grain or potatoes, whisky on rye or corn, rum on sugar cane, and brandy on grapes or other fruit. Sherry, port, and other fortified wines are wines to which spirits have been added, usually to give an ethanol content of about 20%.

Alcoholic brain syndrome
a general term for a range of disorders due to the effects of alcohol on the brain-acute intoxication, pathological intoxication, withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, hallucinosis, amnesiac syndrome, dementia, psychotic disorder.

Alcoholic fatty liver
accumulation of fat in the liver following exposure to hazardous levels of alcohol intake, with consequent enlargement of liver cells and sometimes hepatomegaly, abnormal liver function, nonspecific abdominal recurrent pain, anorexia, and-less commonly- jaundice.

Alcoholic hepatitis
a disorders of the liver characterized by liver cell necrosis and inflammation following chronic consumption of hazardous level of alcohol. It is a well documented precursor of alcoholic cirrhosis.

Alcoholic jealousy
a type of chronic, alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, characterized by delusions that the marital or sexual partner is unfaithful. The delusion is typically accompanied by intense searching for evidence of infidelity and direct accusations that may lead to violent quarrels.

Alcoholic pancreatitis
a disorder characterized by inflammation and necrosis of the pancreas, often accompanied by fibrosis and malfunction, related to the consumption of hazardous levels of alcohol. Alcoholic pancreatitis may be acute or chronic. The acute form presents with upper abdominal pain, anorexia, and vomiting, and can be complicated by hypotension, renal failure, lung disease, and psychosis. The chronic form usually presents with recurrent or persistent abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss; there may be signs of pancreatic deficiency involving the exocrine functions of the pancreas (e.g. malabsorption, nutritional deficiency) or the endocrine functions (diabetes mellitus).

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
a worldwide organization devoted to the treatment of alcoholism through self-help groups and adherence to its principles, which include absolute abstinence from alcohol.

Alcoholism (1)
a term of long-standing use and variable meaning, generally taken to refer to chronic continual drinking or periodic consumption of alcohol which is characterized by impaired control over drinking, frequent episodes of intoxication, and preoccupation with alcohol and the use of alcohol despite adverse consequences.

Alcoholism (3)
physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use will bring on withdrawal symptoms. In popular and therapeutic parlance, the term may also be used to refer to ingrained drinking habits that cause health or social problems. Treatment requires first ending the physical dependence, then making lifestyle changes that help the individual avoid relapse. In some cases, medication or hospitalization is needed. Alcohol dependence can have many serious effects on the brain, liver, and other organs of the body.

Alcoholism (disease, concept of)
the belief that alcoholism is a condition of primary biological causation and predictable natural history, conforming to accepted definitions of a disease. The concept was rooted in 19th-century medical and lay conceptions of inebriety as a disease.

Amethystic agent

a substance taken with the objective of reversing or mitigating the intoxicating effects of alcohol. Such compounds may act by inhibiting the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system or by accelerating the metabolism of alcohol by the liver. Effective drugs of this class are not currently available for therapeutic purposes.

Amnesia
loss or disturbance of memory (complete or partial, permanent or temporary), attributable to either organic or psychological causes. Anterograde amnesia is memory loss of varying duration for events and experiences subsequent to a causal incident, after consciousness has been regained. Retro- grade amnesia is memory loss of varying duration for events and experiences preceding a causal incident.

Amnesic syndrome (alcohol- or drug-induced)
chronic, prominent impairment of recent and remote memory associated with alcohol or drug use. Immediate recall is usually preserved and remote memory is less disturbed than recent memory. Disturbances of time sense and ordering of events are usually evident, as is impaired ability to learn new material.

Amotivational syndrome
a constellation of features said to be associated with substance use, including apathy, loss of effectiveness, diminished capacity to carryout complex or long- term plans, low tolerance for frustration, impaired concentration, and difficulty in following routines.

Amphetamine
one of a class of sympathomimetic amines with powerful stimulant action on the central nervous system. The class includes amphetamine, dexamphetamine, and methamphetamine. Pharmacologically related drugs include methylphenidate, phenmetrazine, and amfepramone (diethylpropion). In street parlance, amphetamines are often referred to as “speed”. Symptoms and signs suggestive of intoxication with amphetamines or similarly acting sympathomimetic include tachycardia, pupillary dilatation, elevated blood pressure, hyperreflexia, sweating, chills, anorexia, nausea or vomiting, insomnia, and abnormal behavior such as aggression, grandiosity, hyper vigilance, agitation, and impaired judgment.

In rare cases, delirium develops within 24 hours of use. Chronic use commonly induces personality and behavior changes such as impulsivity, aggressivity, irritability, suspiciousness, and paranoid psychosis (see amphetamine psychosis). Cessation of intake after prolonged or heavy use may produce a withdrawal reaction, with depressed mood, fatigue, hyperphagia, sleep disturbance, and increased dreaming. Currently, prescription of amphetamines and related substances is limited principally to the treatment of narcolepsy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Amphetamine psychosis
A disorder characterized by paranoid delusions, frequently accompanied by auditory or tactile hallucinations, hyperactivity, and lability of mood, which develops during or shortly after repeated use of moderate or high doses of amphetamines. Typically, the individual’s behavior is hostile and irrational, and may result in unprovoked violence. In most cases there is no clouding of consciousness, but an acute delirium is occasionally seen after the ingestion of very high doses.

Amyl nitrite
one of the aliphatic nitrites, a volatile inhalant that is irritant to the respiratory mucosa and is also a strong vasodilator. It is used non-medically-as a “popper”-at or near the point of orgasm to enhance and prolong sexual pleasure.

Anabolic steroids
drugs patterned after the testosterone molecule that promote masculine changes in the body and increased muscle development. The full name is “anabolic-androgenic steroids.”

Analgesic
a substance that reduces pain and may or may not have psychoactive properties. See also: opioid

Analgesic abuse
See abuse of non-dependence-producing substances. Analgesics that may be purchased without medical prescription, such as aspirin and acetaminophen.

Anesthetic
a substance that causes lack of feeling or awareness. A local anesthetic causes loss of feeling in a part of the body. A general anesthetic puts the person to sleep.

Angel dust
an anesthetic drug, C 1 7 H 2 5 N, used as an animal tranquilizer: also widely used in several forms as an illicit hallucinogen. Also called PCP.

Anorexia
lack or loss of appetite for food, accompanied by a noticeable weight loss if it is chronic.

Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of body weight.

Antagonist
A drug that binds to the same nerve cell receptor as the natural neurotransmitter but does not activate the receptor, instead blocking the effects of another drug.

Anti-epileptic drug
One of a group of therapeutic agents prescribed for the treatment of epileptic disorders. These agents are commonly prescribed for alcohol withdrawal fits, though there is no good evidence of their efficacy for either primary or secondary prophylaxis.

Synonym: anticonvulsant drug

Antidepressant
one of a group of psychoactive agents prescribed for the treatment of depressive disorders; also used for certain other conditions such as panic disorder. There are three main classes: tricyclic antidepressants (which are principally inhibitors of noradrenaline uptake); serotonin receptor agonists and uptake blockers; and the less commonly prescribed monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Tricyclic antidepressants have a relatively low abuse liability, but are sometimes used non-medically for their immediate psychic effects. Tolerance develops to their anticholinergic effects but it is doubtful whether a dependence syndrome or withdrawal syndrome occurs.

Antihistamine
One of a group of therapeutic drugs used in the treatment of allergic disorders and sometimes, because of their sedating effects, to allay anxiety and induce sleep.

Pharmacologically, antihistamines are classed as H1 receptor blockers. These drugs are occasionally used non-medically, particularly by adolescents, in whom they may cause sedation and disinhibition. A moderate degree of tolerance develops but no dependence syndrome or withdrawal syndrome.

Antipsychotic drugs
medications used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia.

Anxiety
a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by physical symptoms such as palpitations, sweating, and feelings of stress . Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses that affect approximately 19 million American adults. These disorders fill people’s lives with overwhelming anxiety and fear. Unlike the relatively mild, brief anxiety caused by a stressful event such as a business presentation or a first date, anxiety disorders are chronic, relentless, and can grow progressively worse if not treated.

Anxiolytics
anti-anxiety drug. See sedative/hypnotic.

Appetite suppressant
an agent used to reduce hunger and diminish food intake in the treatment of obesity. Most such drugs are sympathomimetic amines, whose efficacy is limited by associated insomnia, dependence phenomena, and other adverse effects Amphetamines were formerly in medical use for their appetite suppressant effects.

Assessment (pyschosocial)
interviewing a client to obtain the sociological background, psychological makeup, educational and work history, family and marriage difficulties and medical issues to better assess a client’s need for treatment. Information is gathered and weighed carefully against specific criteria that determine the prevalence of a chemical dependency problem.

At-risk teens
At-risk teens are demographic used to describe teenagers who develop negative behavioral patterns and suffer in their daily life due to their life’s choices. At-Risk Teens are also referred to, perhaps more commonly, as troubled teens.

The parents of teens at risk will usually notice multiple changes in the child. Changes in the at risk teen’s behavior may vary from academic struggles, knowingly drawing attention to their emotions and behaviors and arguing with any and all forms of authority. The parents and other loved ones of at-risk teens may feel helpless, afraid, frustrated and sometimes guilty due to the troublesome behaviors of the child. Treatment may be very beneficial for at-risk teens when provided with tools like therapy, appropriate disciplinary structure, and professional guidance.

At-risk teens display out of control behaviors, and that can create a hostile environment for their entire family’s living conditions. Due to the hostility and self-sabotaging tendencies of at-risk teens, it is crucial for parents to seek immediate treatment for their child.

Attention deficit disorder (ADD)
A chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.

Attitude
An attitude is A manner of thinking, feeling, or behaving that reflects a state of mind or disposition.

A person’s attitude is their overall outlook and feelings on a specific matter. Moreover, a person’s attitude towards something, will consequently effect the way that individual behaves towards a certain situation. For instance, if a person has a negative attitude towards their occupation, that individual is less likely to act on diligence, or any behavior that will promote productiveness regarding their specific job title.

Maintaining a positive attitude is crucial for those who desire to reach success, in any area of life. However, this does not mean an individual needs to necessarily like, or enjoy, every facet of their life. Moreover, a successful individual maintains a positive outlook, in spite of their feelings of dislike, or lack of comfortability.

Aversion conditioning
a form of behavior therapy that is used to reduce the occurrence of undesirable behavior, such as sexual deviations or drug addiction. Conditioning is used with repeated pairing of some unpleasant stimulus with a stimulus related to the undesirable behavior. An example is pairing the taste of beer with electric shock in the treatment of alcoholism. Currently, aversion therapy is seldom used.

Aversion therapy
a treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by associating a painful or unpleasant experience with the behavior. The term refers to any of several forms of treatment of alcohol or other drug dependence directed toward establishing a conditioned aversion to the sight, smell, taste, or thought of the misused substance. Generally the stimulus is a nauseant drug, such as emetine or apomorphine, administered just before an alcoholic drink, so that immediate vomiting occurs and absorption of the alcohol or other substance is avoided. Other stimuli involve an electric shock given in association with an alcoholic drink or with visual suggestions of drinking (bottles, advertisements), administration of a drug that causes brief paralysis of breathing, or verbal suggestion with or without hypnosis.

Bad trip
in drug users’ jargon, an adverse effect of drug use, consisting of any mixture of the following: feelings of losing control, distortions of body image, bizarre and frightening hallucinations, fears of insanity or death, despair, suicidal[ thoughts, and strong negative effect. Physical symptoms may include sweating, palpitations, nausea, and paraesthesias.

Although adverse reactions of this type are usually associated with the use of hallucinogens, they may also be caused by the use of amphetamines and other psychomotor stimulants, anticholinergics, antihistamines, and sedatives/hypnotics.

Barbituate
primarily for sedation. Barbiturates can include some drugs prescribed as anti-anxiety medication, but are usually used for purposes of sedation and as tranquilizers. They have relatively high potential for abuse and dependence.

Barbituate (2)
one of a group of central nervous system depressants that chemically are substituted derivatives of barbituric acid; examples are amobarbital, pento- barbital, phenobarbital, and secobarbital. They are used as antiepileptics, anaesthetics, sedatives, hypnotics, and less commonly-as anxiolytics or anti-anxiety drugs (see sedative/hypnotic). Acute and chronic use induces effects similar to those of alcohol.

Barbiturates have a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic dosage ratio and are often lethal in overdose. Tolerance to barbiturates develops rapidly and the liability for harmful use or dependence is high. Patients who use these drugs over long periods can become psychologically and physically dependent, even though the prescribed dose is never exceeded.

Bars
slang name for a 2mg xanax tablets. Derived from its long bar-like shape.The side effects of xanax, leave you feeling laid back, happy (“drunk”), with loss of memory, loss of perception, loss of motor control skills, and give some “the munchies.”

Behavioral therapy
A treatment that helps change potentially self-destructing behaviors. It is also called behavioral modification or cognitive behavioral therapy. Medical professionals use this type of therapy to replace bad habits with good ones.

Bennies
Street name for benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepine
A class of prescription medication used to treat acute panic disorders and anxiety. They have a potential for abuse and addiction.

Benzodiazepine (2)
one of a group of structurally related drugs used mainly as sedatives/hypnotics, muscle relaxants, and anti-epileptics, and once referred to by the now- deprecated term “minor tranquillizers”. Benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to barbiturates. They do not suppress REM sleep to the same extent as barbiturates, but have a significant potential for physical and psychological dependence and misuse. Fatal overdose is rare with any benzodiazepine unless it is taken concurrently with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants.

Benzos
Any of a number of pills primarily used for treatment of anxiety; a controlled substance in most countries; some of the more well known benzos are xanax, valium, ativan, and klonopin

Biological marker
a biological compound or attribute that provides evidence of the presence of, or vulnerability to, a specific disorder. In general, two types of marker are distinguished. A state marker identifies a current abnormality that most typically reflects a transient or reactive condition of the subject, such as the degree of activity of an underlying disorder or the recent use of a drug. A trait marker identifies a relatively stable and enduring attribute that reflects a continuing condition or, particularly in the case of a genetic marker, a predisposition to a specific disorder.

Most biological markers for alcohol and other drugs are state markers, and many simply reflect the recent history of consumption. A high blood alcohol level, for example, may identify a state of alcoholic intoxication, but it does not confirm alcohol dependence. Many, but not all, state markers for alcohol are in fact tests of hepatic damage. They are diagnostic tests of alterations in liver status secondary to chronic drinking, and not valid indicators of alcohol dependence. Other biological state markers for heavy alcohol consumption include de- sialotransferrin and acetaldehyde-protein adducts or antibodies to them.

Biomedical model
the theoretical position that mental disorders are caused by abnormal biochemical processes in the brain.

Biopsychosocial (BPS)
a general model or approach stating that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social (socio-economical, socio-environmental, and cultural) factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or addiction

Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder grapple with severe afflictions and issues. A person suffering from bipolar disorder struggles with extreme, unpredictable mood swings. Moreover, bipolar afflicted individuals will experience the highest of highs followed by the lowest of lows.

Troubled teens, who struggle with bipolar disorder, are at high risk for developing negative behaviors. Due to their erratic and turbulent tendencies, bipolar afflicted teens may experience hardships such as, destroying relationships with loved ones and friends, losing occupational opportunities or their employment altogether, or poor performances in academics. If left untreated, adolescents may develop suicidal thoughts and tendencies that could result in fatal consequences.

Fortunately, bipolar teens are able to receive therapeutic treatment for their severe disorders. With proper medication and therapeutic treatment, individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder are able to live the healthy, productive and fulfilling lives in spite of their mental condition.

Black tar
a potent form of heroin, generally brownish in color, originating in Mexico.

Blackout
acute anterograde amnesia, not associated with loss of consciousness, resulting from the ingestion of alcohol or other substances; a period of memory loss during which there is little if any recall of activities. When this occurs in the course of chronic alcohol ingestion, it is sometimes referred to as the ‘alcoholic palimpsest.”

Blood alcohol content (BAC)
the concentration of alcohol (ethanol) present in blood. The BAC is often extrapolated from measurements made on breath or urine or other biological fluids in which the alcohol concentration bears a known relationship to that in the blood.

Brief intervention
a treatment strategy in which structured therapy of short duration (typically 5-30 minutes) is offered with the aim of assisting an individual to cease or reduce the use of a psychoactive substance or (less commonly) to deal with other life issues. It is designed in particular for general practitioners and other primary health care workers. To date, brief intervention-sometimes known as minimal intervention-has been applied mainly to cessation of smoking and as therapy for harmful use of alcohol. The rationale for brief intervention is that, even if the percentage of individuals who alter their substance use after a single intervention is small, the public health impact of large numbers of primary health care workers providing these interventions systematically is considerable. Brief intervention is often linked to systematic screening testing for hazardous and harmful substance use, particularly of alcohol and tobacco.

Buprenorphine
a synthetic opiate used in the treatment of heroin abuse. Brand names are Subutex and (in combination with naloxone) Suboxone.

Caffeine
a xanthine, which is a mild central nervous system stimulant, vasodilator, and diuretic. Caffeine is found in coffee, chocolate, cola and some other soft drinks, and tea, in some cases with other xanthines such as theophylline or theobromine. Acute or chronic overuse (e.g. a daily intake of 500 mg or more) with resultant toxicity is termed caffeinism. Symptoms include restlessness, insomnia, flushed face, muscle twitching, tachycafdia, gastrointestinal disturbances including abdominal pain, pressured or rambling thought and speech, and sometimes exacerbation of pre-existing anxiety or panic states, depression, or schizophrenia.

Cannabis
A naturally occurring plant that produces buds containing THC that is considered illegal in some states. A state of euphoria is attained by smoking the buds and/or secretions of the buds of the marijuana plant.

Cannabis (1)
the botanical name for the plant from which marijuana comes. Its full name is Cannabis sativa. Use of cannabis produces a mild sense of euphoria, as well as impairments in judgment and lengthened response time. Cannabis may be smoked or eaten.

Cannabis (2)
a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the marijuana (hemp) plant, Cannabis sativa. They include marijuana leaf (in street jargon: grass, pot, dope, weed, or reefers), bhang, ganja, or hashish (derived from the resin of the flowering heads of the plant), and hashish oil.

Cannabis contains at least 60 cannabinoids, several of which are biologically active. The most active constituent is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and TH C and its metabolites can be detected in urine for several weeks after usage of cannabis (usually by smoking).

Cannabis intoxication produces a feeling of euphoria, lightness of the limbs, and often social withdrawal. It impairs driving and the performance of other complex, skilled activities; it impairs immediate recall, attention span, reaction time, learning ability, motor co-ordination, depth perception, peripheral vision, time sense (the individual typically has a sensation of slowed time), and signal detection. Other signs of intoxication may include excessive anxiety, suspiciousness or paranoid ideas in some and euphoria or apathy in others, impaired judgment, conjunctival injection, increased appetite, dry mouth, and tachycardia. Cannabis is sometimes consumed with alcohol, a combination that is additive in its psychomotor effects.

Case study
a process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time

Causal factors
the antecedent conditions or cues that influence the outcome of a chemical dependency problem in an individual. Many schools of thought have theorized what these are, and while none agree wholeheartedly, most agree that environment, conditioning and genetics play a role.

CCDC
Certified Chemical Dependency Counselor.

Central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord.

Change process
The change process is a psychology term that refers to the process of transforming one’s negative mental state into a positive one. A change process formerly takes place after an individual engages in some form of psychological treatment.

There are many types of change processes that an individual can undergo. The level of difficulty in attempting a process of change depends on the individual, and what their personal afflictions are, specifically. For example, those who suffer from drug or alcohol dependency issues require the services of a rehabilitative treatment program and significant changes in lifestyle to successfully complete a change process.

Troubled teens are a large demographic who are in need of severe lifestyle changes. Luckily for troubled adolescents and their parents, there are nearly countless options and levels of treatment that cater to teens who are in desperate need of a change process.

Chemical dependence
addiction or dependence on drugs/alcohol. Synonymous with substance abuse.

Chipping
the taking of heroin on an occasional basis.

Chlordiazepoxide
a major benxodiazepine drug for the treatment of anxiety. Brand name is Librium.

Chlorpromazine
an anti-psychotic (antischizophrenia) drug. Brand name is Thorazine.

Chronic toxicicity
the physical or psychological harm a drug might cause over a long period of use.

Classical conditioning
in classical conditioning, which was discovered by Pavlov, a light or sound is paired with a natural reinforcement. The response which was initially produced by the reinforcement becomes conditioned’ so that it occurs to the light or sound even when no reinforcement is given. This is therefore a matter of learning an association between two stimuli (the reinforcement and the light or sound) and is referred to as S-S conditioning.

Client
a person or organization using the services of a lawyer or other professional person or company

CNS depressants
A class of drugs that slow CNS function (also called sedatives and tranquilizers), some of which are used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders; includes barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

Coca paste (Spanish: pasta de coca)
the product of the first step in the process of extracting cocaine from coca leaves. It contains 50-90% cocaine sulfate and toxic impurities such as kerosene and sulfuric acid. It is smoked in South America with marijuana, with tobacco, or alone. Coca paste mixed with marijuana and/or tobacco is known as pitilIo in Bolivia and bazuco in Colombia.

Cocaine
A powerful illegal drug that is very addictive (=it is difficult to stop taking it). It is usually sold in the form of a white powder that people breathe in through their noses. Cocaine is also called coke.

Cocaine (1)
An alkaloid obtained from coca leaves or synthesized from ecgonine or its derivatives. Cocaine hydrochloride was commonly used as a local anesthetic in dentistry ophthalmology, and ear, nose and throat surgery because its strong vasoconstrictor action helps to reduce local bleeding. Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant used non-medically to produce euphoria or wakefulness; repeated use produces dependence.

Cocaine, or “coke”, is often sold as white, translucent, crystalline flakes or powder (“snuff”, “snow”), frequently adulterated with various sugars or local anesthetics. The powder is sniffed (“snorted”) and produces effects within 1-3 minutes that last for about 30 minutes. Cocaine may be ingested orally, often with alcohol, and combined opioid and cocaine users are likely to inject it intravenously. “Freebasing” refers to increasing the potency of cocaine by extracting pure cocaine alkaloid (the free base) and inhaling the heated vapors through a cigarette or water pipe. An aqueous solution of the cocaine salt is mixed with an alkali (such as baking soda), and the free base is then extracted into an organic solvent such as ether or hexane.

The procedure is dangerous because the mixture is explosive and highly flammable. A simpler procedure, which avoids use of organic solvents, consists of heating the cocaine salt with baking soda; this yields “crack”.

Cocaine psychosis
a set of symptoms, including hallucinations, paranoia, and disordered thinking produced by chronic use of cocaine

Codeine
one of the three active ingredients in opium, used primarily to treat coughing.

Codependence
a mechanism whereby a person takes responsibility for actions of others and helps one avoid facing problems directly in order to preserve stability in a family relationship.

Codependency
the concept that individuals who live with a person who ahs an alcohol (or other drug) dependence suffer themselves from difficulties or self-image and impaired social independence.

Codependent
a relative, dose friend, or colleague of an alcohol- or drug-dependent person, whose actions are defined by the term as tending to perpetuate that person’s dependence and thereby retard the process of recovery.

Cogener
in strict usage, this term applies to the alcohols (other than ethanol}, aldehydes, and esters that are found in alcoholic beverages and contribute to the special aroma and taste of these drinks. However, “congener” is also used more loosely to mean any constituent of an alcoholic drink that imparts an aroma, taste, color, or other characteristic such as “body” to such a drink. Tannins and colorants are some of the compounds that have been so termed.

Cognitive
relating to mental awareness and judgment.

Cognitive Therapy
a form of psychotherapy based on the belief that psychological problems are the products of faulty ways of thinking about the world. For example, a depressed patient may have come to see him- or herself as powerless to change in any way. The therapist assists the patient to identify these false ways of thinking and to avoid them.

Cola nut

the nut of an African tree of the Sterculiaceae family, containing caffeine and eaten socially in West Africa. A caffeine-bearing extract is widely used in mass-marketed carbonated cola drinks, some of which also contain an extract of coca leaves with the cocaine removed.

Comorbidity
The occurrence of two disorders or illnesses in the same person, also referred to as co-occurring conditions or dual diagnosis. Patients with comorbid illnesses may experience a more severe illness course and require treatment for each or all conditions.

Compulsion
when applied to psychoactive substance use, the term refers to a powerful urge-attributed to internal feelings rather than external influences- to take the substance (or substances} in question. The substance user may recognize the urge as detrimental to well- being and may have a conscious intent to refrain. These feelings are less characteristic of alcohol and drug dependence than of the psychiatric syndrome of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Conditioning
a change in behavior due to association between events. Conditioning is usually divided into two kinds: classical or Pavlovian; and operant or instrumental. Both involve the pairing of an event with reinforcement’, which may be positive’ (rewards of food, drink, or sex) or negative’ (punishment such as electric shock). In classical conditioning, which was discovered by Pavlov, a light or sound is paired with a natural reinforcement. The response which was initially produced by the reinforcement becomes conditioned’ so that it occurs to the light or sound even when no reinforcement is given. This is therefore a matter of learning an association between two stimuli (the reinforcement and the light or sound) and is referred to as S-S conditioning.

Conduct disorder
Conduct disorder is a self-destructive, childhood behavior, characterized by aggressive and self-harming activities that cause serious disruptions in a child’s life. Conduct disorder results in negative connotations in every aspect of a child’s life: school, home, and community ( church, social clubs, etc.) As this behavior is obvious to others, it should be easily diagnosed. After diagnosis, conduct disorder requires immediate, intensive psychiatric treatment.

All children display some sort of rebellious traits, at one time or another. However, when a child consistently shows outright rebellion and disrespect, regardless of environmental structure, it is necessary for the child to undergo psychiatric treatment for their behaviors.

Control, impaired
diminished ability of an individual to control his or her use of a psychoactive substance in terms of onset, level, or termination. “Impaired capacity to control’ is a criterion for the dependence syndrome. Impaired control is distinguished from loss of control in that the latter implies that the phenomenon prevails at all times and in all circumstances.

Control, loss of
an inability to modulate the amount and frequency of psycho-active substance use. The inability to cease ingesting substances such as alcohol and cocaine once their initial effect has been experienced. In recent discussions of the dependence syndrome, the term “loss of control” has been replaced by impaired control.

Controlled substances
psychoactive substances and their precursors whose distribution is forbidden by law or limited to medical and pharmaceutical channels.

Core classes
Core classes are academic disciplines of study that are mandatory for a person to take and successfully pass to progress in their education, and eventually graduate. Due to the importance of core classes, students should especially concern themselves with learning the concepts and lessons of these classes, as core classes are the foundation of every phase of basic education.

Core classes’ minimal requirements of basic education are made up of the following classes:

-history
-social science
-mathematics (pre-algebra, algebra1, geometry and algebra 2,)
-science (earth science, biology, chemistry, physics,)
-language arts (American literature, creative writing).

Core classes are individually made up of levels of varying difficulty. For example, mathematics is a core class that is made up numerous courses a high school student may or may not take within their academic lifetime. While the minimum requirement for a student in mathematics may be set, students are not limited to that level of learning. Moreover, a student can take additional courses that surpass their core curriculums minimum requirement, as well as college courses while still enrolled in high school.

Core values
Core values are an individual’s fundamental beliefs and guiding principals by which they live by. Core values are essential for dictating the way a person behaves and how an individual differentiates right from wrong.

Crack cocaine
The most potent stimulant of natural origin, a bitter addictive anesthetic (pain blocker) which is extracted from the leaves of the coca scrub (Erythroxylon coca) indigenous to the Andean highlands of South America. “Crack” or “rock” is alkaloid (free base) cocaine, an amorphous compound that may contain crystals of sodium chloride. It is beige in color. “Crack” refers to the crackling sound made when the compound is heated. An intense “high” occurs 4-6 seconds after crack is inhaled; an early feeling of elation or the disappearance of anxiety is experienced, together with exaggerated feelings of confidence and self-esteem.

There is also impairment of judgment, and the user is thus likely to undertake irresponsible, illegal, or dangerous activities without regard for the consequences. Speech is pressured and may become disjointed and incoherent. Pleasurable effects last only 5-7 minutes, after which the mood rapidly descends into dysphoria, and the user is compelled to repeat the process in order to regain the exhilaration and euphoria of the “high”. Overdose appears to be more frequent with crack than with other forms of cocaine.

Crack cocaine
Chemically purified, very potent cocaine in pellet form that is smoked through a glass pipe and is considered highly and rapidly addictive.

Craving
very strong desire for a psychoactive substance or for the intoxicating effects of that substance. Craving is a term in popular use for the mechanism presumed to underlie impaired control. It is thought by some to develop, at least partly, as a result of conditioned associations that evoke conditioned withdrawal responses. Craving may also be induced by the provocation of any physiological arousal state resembling an alcohol or drug withdrawal syndrome.

Crisis intervention
intervention provided when a crisis exists to the extent that on usual coping resources threaten individual or family functioning.

Cross dependence (1)
Condition in which one drug can prevent the withdrawal symptoms associated with physical dependence on a different drug.

Cross dependence (2)
a pharmacological term used to denote the capacity of one substance (or class of substances) to suppress the manifestations of withdrawal from another substance or class and thereby maintain the physically dependent state. Note that “dependence” is normally used here in the narrower psycho- pharmacological sense associated with suppression of withdrawal symptoms. A consequence of the phenomenon of cross-dependence is that dependence on a substance is more likely to develop if the individual is already dependent on a related substance. For example, dependence on a benzodiazepine develops more readily in individuals already dependent on another drug of this type or on other substances with sedating effects such as alcohol and barbiturates.

Cross tolerance (1)
condition in which tolerance of one drug results in a lessened response to another drug.

Cross tolerance (2)
the development of tolerance to a substance, to which the individual has not previously been exposed, as a result of acute or chronic intake of another substance. The two substances usually, but not invariably, have similar pharmacological effects. Cross-tolerance is apparent when a dose of the novel substance fails to produce the expected effect.

Cross-tolerance
a phenomenon in which the tolerance that results from the chronic use of one drug induces a tolerance effect with regard to a second drug that has not been used before.

Crystal meth
Crystallized methamphetamine, a concentrated and highly potent form of methamphetamine with dangerous side effects. Also called: ice.

D-amphetamine
shortened name for dextroamphetamine, a potent form of amphetamine marketed under the brand name Dexedrine

Darvon
brand name for propoxyphene: a synthetic opiate useful in treating heroin abuse.

DEA
Drug Enforcement Administration. Division of the U.S. Department of Justice.

Decriminalization
the repeal of laws or regulations that define a behavior, product, or condition as criminal. The term is used in connection with both illicit drugs and the crime of public drunkenness (see inebriate). It is sometimes also applied to a reduction in the seriousness of a crime or of the penalties the crime attracts, as when possession of marijuana is downgraded from a crime that warrants arrest and a jail term to an infraction to be punished with a warning or fine. Thus decriminalization is often distinguished from legalization, which involves the complete repeal of any definition as a crime, often coupled with a governmental effort to control or influence the market for the affected behavior or product.

Deinstitutionalization
the social policy of encouraging mentally ill individuals to be treated in community-based programs rather than in large mental hospitals.

Delerium (1)
an acute organic cerebral syndrome characterized by concurrent disturbances of consciousness, attention, perception, orientation, thinking, memory, psychomotor behavior, emotion, and the sleep-wake cycle. Duration is variable, from a few hours to a few weeks and the degree of severity ranges from mild to very severe. An alcohol-induced withdrawal syndrome with delirium is known as delirium tremens.

Delerium (2)
A sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometimes associated with hallucinations and hyperactivity, in which the patient is inaccessible to normal contact. Symptoms may include inability to concentrate and disorganized thinking evidenced by rambling, irrelevant, or incoherent speech. There may be a reduced level of consciousness, sensory misperceptions and illusions, disturbances of sleep, drowsiness, disorientation to time, place, or person, and problems with memory.

Delerium tremens (1)
a sudden state of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, sometimes associated with hallucinations and hyperactivity, in which the patient is inaccessible to normal contact. Symptoms may include inability to concentrate and disorganized thinking evidenced by rambling, irrelevant, or incoherent speech. There may be a reduced level of consciousness, sensory misperceptions and illusions, disturbances of sleep, drowsiness, disorientation to time, place, or person, and problems with memory.

Delerium tremens (2)
a neurological symptom of alcohol withdrawal seen in chronic alcoholism, with includes symptoms of psychosis. These may include uncontrollable trembling, hallucinations, severe anxiety, sweating, and sudden feelings of terror. Delirium tremens can be both frightening and, in severe cases, deadly. Treatment includes observation, comfort care, and in some cases medication.

Delirium tremens (DTs)
the less common of two general reactions to the cessation of drinking in an alcoholic. It is characterized by extreme disorientation and confusion, fever hallucinations, and other symptoms.

Delusions
ideas that have no foundation in reality.

Demand reduction
a general term used to describe policies or programs directed at reducing the consumer demand for psychoactive drugs. It is applied primarily to illicit drugs, particularly with reference to educational, treatment, and rehabilitation strategies, as opposed to law enforcement strategies that aim to interdict the production and distribution of drugs (supply reduction). Compare harm reduction

Denial
the refusal to admit to one’s self the truth or reality, i.e. a person who refuses to admit that they have a problem with alcohol or drugs.

Dependence
as a general term, the state of needing or depending on something or someone for support or to function or survive. As applied to alcohol and other drugs, the term implies a need for repeated doses of the drug to feel good or to avoid feeling bad. In DSM- IIIR, dependence is defined as “a cluster of cognitive, behavioral and physiologic symptoms that indicate a person has impaired control of psychoactive substance use and continues use of the substance despite adverse consequences.

Dependence potential
The propensity of a substance, as a consequence of its pharmacological effects on physiological or psychological functions, to give rise to dependence on that substance. Dependence potential is determined by those intrinsic pharmacological properties that can be measured in animal and human drug testing procedures See also: abuse liability

Dependence syndrome
a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that may develop after repeated substance use. Typically, these phenomena include a strong desire to take the drug, impaired control over its use, persistent use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and a physical withdrawal reaction when drug use is discontinued.

Depressants
any agent that suppresses, inhibits, or decreases some aspects of central nervous system (CNS) activity. The main classes of CNS depressants are the sedatives/hypnotics, opioids, and neuroleptics. Examples of depressant drugs are alcohol, barbiturates, anesthetics, benzodiazepines, opiates and their synthetic analogues.

Depression
an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts that affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be wished away. People with a depressive disease cannot merely “pull themselves together” and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years.

Designer drugs
A novel chemical substance with psychoactive properties, synthesized specifically for sale on the illicit market and to circumvent regulations on controlled substances. In response, these regulations now commonly cover novel and possible analogues of existing psychoactive substances. The term was coined in the 1980s.

Detoxification
the process of drug withdrawal in which the body is allowed to rid itself of the chemical effects of the drug in the bloodstream.

Dextromethorphan (DXM)
a popular non-narcotic ingredient used in over-the-counter couch remedies. The “DM” designation on these preparations refers to dextromethorphan.

Diacetylmorphine
alternative generic names for heroin. See also: opioid

Diagnostic instrument
in general medical usage, any machine or instrument, and by extension-any clinical procedure or interview schedule used for the determination of an individual’s medical condition or the nature of his or her illness. With respect to substance use and other behavioral disorders, the term refers principally to lists of questions oriented to diagnosis, including structured interview schedules that can be administered by trained lay interviewers. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) are examples of such schedules, which allow diagnosis of psychoactive substance use disorders as well as a range of other mental disorders. See also: screening instrument

Diagnostic test
a procedure or instrument used in conjunction with observation of behavior patterns, history , and clinical examination to help in establishing the presence, nature, and source of, or vulnerability to, a disorder, or to measure some specified characteristic of an individual or group.

Diazepam
a common benzodiazepine. Brand name is valium.

Disability (alcohol- or drug-related)
any problem, illness, or other consequence of harmful use, acute intoxication, or dependence that inhibits an individual’s capacity to act normally in the context of social or economic activities. Examples include the decline in social functioning or physical activity that accompanies alcoholic cirrhosis, drug-related HIV infection, or alcohol- related traumatic injury. See also: alcohol-related problem; drug-related problem

Disease model
a theory of alcoholism endorsed by the AMA, APA, The World Health Organization, NCADD and AA, in which alcoholism is seen as a disease rather than a psychological or social problem.

Disinhibition
a state of release from internal constraints on an individual’s behavior. Disinhibition may result from the administration of a psychoactive drug. The belief that a psychoactive drug, especially alcohol, gives rise pharmacologically to uninhibited behavior, is often expressed in the 19th century physiological formulation of the shutting off of inhibitions located in “the higher centers of the mind”.

Disorder (psychoactive substance use)
a generic term used to denote mental, physical, and behavioral conditions of clinical relevance and associated with the use of psychoactive substances. The disorders include acute intoxication, harmful use, dependence syndrome, withdrawal syndrome, psychotic disorders, and amnesic syndrome.

Disorganization
a state of impaired and inefficient emotional organization resulting from a person’s inability to cope with internal conflicts and external reality

Dissociative drugs
These drugs vary by schedule. Several are popular for abuse. Dissociative drugs induce sedative effects, along with a sense of disconnection from self and others. These drugs can induce mild hallucinations.

Distillation
a process that used heat to purify or separate a fraction of a complex substance. Various components of the mixture are collected as gases and condense to liquids. Liquors are produced through distillation.

Distribution phase
the process by which ethanol spreads from the blood to all tissues and fluids in proportion to their relative water content.

Disulfarim (Antabuse)
The prototypic alcohol-sensitizing drug, prescribed to assist in maintaining abstinence from alcohol. Disulfiram inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and, in the presence of alcohol, causes accumulation of acetaldehyde and an aversive facial flushing reaction, accompanied by nausea, dizziness, and palpitations. These effects are sometimes termed “the Antabuse reaction”.

Diversion program
a program of treatment or re-education for individuals referred from criminal courts (criminal diversion) after being charged with driving under the influence of alcohol (drinking-driver diversion) or another drug, with the sale or use of drugs (drug diversion), or with a general crime not defined in terms of drugs or alcohol. In strict legal use of the term, individuals are assigned to diversion programs in lieu of prosecution, which is usually held in abeyance pending successful completion of the diversion program. “Diversion” is also used more broadly for any pattern of referral from the court at any stage of processing, including as a sentence or condition of probation.

Dizziness
painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of vision, the brain, balance (vestibular) system of the inner ear, and gastrointestinal system. Dizziness is a medically indistinct term which laypersons use to describe a variety of conditions ranging from lightheadedness, unsteadiness to vertigo.

Dopamine
a neurotransmitter in the brain whose activity is related to emotionality and motor control

Dosage
the quantity of drug that is taken into the body, typically measured in terms of milligrams (mg) or micrograms (ug).

Double blind
a procedure in drug research in which neither the individual administering a chemical substance nor the individual receiving it knows whether the substance is the drug being evaluated or an active placebo

Downers
barbiturates, tranquilizers, alcohol, and depressants.

Drinking
ingestion of a beverage; specifically, in the present context, of an alcoholic beverage.

Drinking and driving
the generally favored term for the criminal action of driving a vehicle with a blood alcohol level over a specified limit. The term “drinking and driving” includes, but is not limited to, drunk driving, driving under the influence (DUI), and driving while intoxicated (DWI).

Drinking, binge
a pattern of heavy drinking that occurs in an extended period set aside for the purpose. In population surveys, the period is usually defined as more than one day of drinking at a time. The terms “bout drinking” and “spree drinking” are also used for the activity, and “drinking bout” for the occasion. A binge drinker or bout drinker is one who drinks predominantly in this fashion, often with intervening periods of abstinence. Synonyms: bout drinking; spree drinking

Drinking, controlled
drinking that is moderated to avoid intoxication or hazardous use. The term is applied especially when there is a reason to question the ability to drink in a controlled fashion at all times, as in the case of individuals who have exhibited signs of alcohol dependence or harmful drinking. When applied to the use of other psychoactive substance, the analogous term “controlled drug use” refers to the maintenance of regular, non- compulsive substance use that does not interfere with ordinary functioning, and to methods of use that minimize untoward drug effects. Compare impaired control. See also: drinking, moderate

Drinking, escape
Drinking motivated by the desire or need to escape an unpleasant mood or situation. Cognate terms are: personal-effects reasons (vs: social); use of alcohol for coping; negative-affect drinking.

Drinking, excessive
currently a non-preferred term for a pattern of drinking considered to exceed some standard of moderate drinking or acceptability. Hazardous drinking is a rough equivalent in current use.

Drinking, heavy
a pattern of drinking that exceeds some standard of moderate drinking or— more equivocally—social drinking. Heavy drinking is often defined in terms of exceeding a certain daily volume (e.g. three drinks a day) or quantity per occasion (e.g. five drinks on an occasion, at least once a week).See also: drinking, excessive; standard drink drinking, inveterate See alcoholization.

Drinking, moderate
an inexact term for a pattern of drinking that is by implication contrasted with heavy drinking. It denotes drinking that is moderate in amount and does not cause problems. Sometimes, moderate drinking is also contrasted with light drinking. See also: drinking, controlled; drinking, excessive; drinking, heavy; drinking

Drinking, problem
drinking that results in problems, individual or collective, health or social. A problem drinker is a person whose drinking has resulted in health or social problems.

Formulations that avoid the labeling inherent in the term include “drinking-related problems” and “drinking problems” (see alcohol-related problems). The term “problematic drinking” has been used by some to cover the related concept of drinking that has the potential to cause problems (roughly equivalent to hazardous use of alcohol

Drug
a chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning.

Drug abuse
Drug abuse is defined as the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs. Once considered as a taboo, drug use and abuse is now a rising dangerous and fatal epidemic that affects the entire nation. Drug abuse has made it’s way into our youth’s pop culture and has destroyed the lives of countless teens. Hard drugs such as, cocaine, heroin, ecstasy, ketamine and methamphetamine are becoming increasingly more popular among teens.

Teens, who participate in drug abuse, are unaware of the long lasting effects and consequences that drug abuse brings. Teens who abuse harmful substances generally have the mindset of ” I’m just having fun, I’m not an addict.” Drug abusing teens feel as though they are simply participating in a phase of their life where it is acceptable to ‘experiment’ and they can quit whenever they choose to. This, however is hardly ever the case. Teens who abuse drugs as adolescents are only preparing to live the life of a drug addicted adult.

If teens, who abuse drugs, don’t receive proper treatment, their lives will eminently deteriorate and fall to shambles. Not receiving proper rehabilitative treatment will exponentially increase a drug addicted teen’s chances of dying at an early age. Parents can trust in the services of partial hospitalization or day treatment for rehabilitating their addicted child.

Drug control
the regulation, by a system of laws and agencies, of the production, distribution, sale, and use of specific psychoactive drugs (controlled substances) locally, nationally, or internationally (see conventions, international drug). Alternatively, equivalent to drug policy (compare alcohol policy).

Drug dependence
A condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. In the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual’s life.

Drug misuse
use of any drug (legal or illegal) for a medical or recreational purpose when other alternatives are available, practical or warranted, or when drug use endangers either the user or others with whom he or she may interact.

Drug misuse
drug-taking behavior in which a prescription or over-the-counter drug is used inappropriately.

Drug related problem
any of the range of adverse accompaniments of drug use, particularly illicit drug use. “Related” does not necessarily imply causality. The term was coined by analogy with alcohol-related problem but is less used, since it is drug use itself, rather than the consequences, that tends to be defined as the problem; it can be used to refer to problems at an individual or societal level.

Drug testing
the analysis of body fluids (such as blood, urine, or saliva) or hair or other tissue for the presence of one or more psychoactive substances. Drug testing is employed to monitor abstinence from psychoactive substances in individuals pursuing drug rehabilitation programs, to monitor surreptitious drug use among patients on maintenance therapy, and where employment is conditional on abstinence from such substances.

Drug tolerance
a state of progressively decreased responsiveness to a drug.

Dual diagnosis
Dual diagnosis (also called co-occurring disorders, COD) is a disorder in which an individual suffers from a mental illness in addition to suffering from addiction to harmful substances. An individual who suffers from COD is incapable of handling his/her psychological ailments on their own. For this reason, it is imperative that individuals suffering from dual diagnosis receive immediate psychiatric treatment.

Dual diagnosis
a general term referring to comorbidity or the co-occurrence in the same individual of a psychoactive substance use disorder and another psychiatric disorder.

DUI
Driving Under the Influence of alcohol or an illicit substance – any substance, licit or illicit, if it impairs the driving function

DWI
Driving While Intoxicated.

Dysfunctional use
substance use that is leading to impaired psychological or social functioning, for example, loss of employment or marital problems.

Early intervention
a therapeutic strategy that combines early detection of hazardous or harmful substance use and treatment of those involved. Treatment is offered or provided before such time as patients might present of their own volition and in many cases before they are aware that their substance use might cause problems. It is directed particularly at individuals who have not developed physical dependence or major psychosocial complications. Early intervention is therefore a pro-active approach, which is initiated by the health worker rather than the patient. The first stage consists of a systematic procedure for early detection. There are several approaches: routine enquiry about use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in the clinical history, and the use of screening tests, for example, in primary health care settings. Supplementary questions are then asked in order to confirm the diagnosis. The second component, treatment, is usually brief and takes place in the primary health care setting (lasting on average 5-30 minutes). Treatment may be more extensive in other settings. See also: brief intervention

Ecstasy
referred to as the ultimate dance party drug Ecstasy acts acutely to increase energy, provide a sense of camaraderie and attachment, increase sexual desire, and induce euphoria. Besides sexual side effects, it produces increased heart rate, chills, sweating, dehyration, and various strictly psychiatric symptoms.

A street name for 3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also called “Adam,” “ecstasy,” or “XTC” on the street, a synthetic, psychoactive (mind-altering) drug with hallucinogenic and amphetamine-like properties. Its chemical structure is similar to two other synthetic drugs, MDA and methamphetamine.

Effective dose (ED)
the minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population.

Elimination half-life
the length of time it takes for a drug to be reduced to 50% of its equilibrium level in the bloodstream

Emergency department
the department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medical and surgical care to patients arriving at the hospital in need of immediate care.

Emotional disorder
Emotional disorder is a broad category which is used commonly in educational settings, to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents.The most common emotional disorders include Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorder. Teens, who display characteristics of emotional disorders, are more susceptible to negative behaviors such as, selfishness, rebelliousness, and anger.

As adolescence is already a difficult time, teens, who suffer from emotional or psychological disorders, may find navigating through adolescence to be near the impossible. It is for this reason that parents should seek professional therapeutic help if their child is showing symptoms of emotional disorder. If parents suspect their teen may be suffering from some type of emotional disorder, the services of a wilderness therapy programs will provide their child with adequate therapeutic restoration to their child.

Emotional health
Emotional health is a psychological term that refers to a person’s emotional well-being, and the status, good or bad, of their mental state. Emotional health is often overlooked because it can be difficult, at times, to diagnose those who suffer from various ailments.

An individual’s mental state of well-being. Like physical health, emotional health can be damaged and requires professional and clinical treatment. Moreover, if a person’s mental health is damaged, the afflicted individual should treat their malady like they would a physical one and seek medical treatment immediately.

Psychological treatment can provide adults and children, who suffer from poor emotional health, with the foundation of rehabilitative fundamentals necessary for achieving a full recovery.

Emphysema
a lung condition featuring an abnormal accumulation of air in the lung’s many tiny air sacs, a tissue called alveoli. As air continues to collect in these sacs, they become enlarged, and may break, or be damaged and form scar tissue. Emphysema is strongly associated with smoking cigarettes, a practice that causes lung irritation. It can also be associated with or worsened by repeated infection of the lungs, such as is seen in chronic bronchitis.

Employee assistance program (EAP)
corporate or institutional programs for workers or employees to help them with alcohol or other drug-abuse problems.

Enablers
individuals whose behavior consciously or unconsciously encourages another persons continuation in a pattern of alcohol or other drug abuse.

Encephalopathy
an inexact term referring to organic brain disorder of any degree. Some authors use the term in a more restricted sense to refer to chronic brain disease with irreversible pathological changes; others use it to describe an acute delirium. Still others use it for early signs of brain tissue dysfunction that are too subtle to warrant a definitive diagnosis. Alcoholic encephalopathy indicates that the damage to brain tissue damage is caused by or associated with alcohol use.

Endorphins
a class of chemical substances, produced in the brain and elsewhere in the body, that mimic the effects of morphine and other opiate drugs

Environment
The environment, social context, sociocultural context, or milieu, refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact.

A person’s environment is highly influential. Their environment influences everything from the way a person thinks, what he/she likes/dislikes, and what that person does for recreation. This is especially true of adolescents.

Generally speaking, an adolescent’s social environment is everything to them. What their peers and other adolescents think of them is an adolescent’s main concern. This problematic, inflated importance of their social status in their environment, an adolescent is easily influenced, which can lead to self-destructive behaviors. If it is the cool thing to do, regardless of whether or not it is self-harming, a teen may choose to display negative behaviors. They may do so, in hopes of pleasing other teens within their environment, or to further avoid scrutiny from their environment’s social hierarchy. In short, an adolescent’s environment may have a positive, or negative effect on their lives. Because of this, a teen should surround themselves with an environment made up of positive, fruitful and productive peers.

Ethanol
ethyl alcohol or the beverage type of alcohol.

Euphoria
an exaggerated feeling of well-being.

Extracurricular activity
Merriam Webster’s Dictionary defines extracurricular activity as an educational or productive activity not falling within the scope of the regular curriculum.

Examples of extracurricular activities include : social clubs (drama, chess, film etc.), Community activities ( Commmunity theatre, event organizing etc), church activities, arts (theatre, music, dance, creative writing etc.), as well as the participation and the practice of organized sports. Extracurricular activities are crucial for a well-balanced, productive, teenage lifestyle. These varied activities act as a healthy distraction for teens, who might otherwise engage in unhealthy, self-destructive activities. Additionally, a well-balanced lifestyle requires an adolescent to participate in at least one extracurricular activity, with regularity.

Failure to launch
Failure to launch syndrome is an unofficial name for a common problem seen among young adults. In short, it can be defined as the inability, either from desire or lack of preparation, to leave home and begin a journey toward self-supported life.

Young adults who suffer from failure to launch syndrome may show the following characteristics: low tolerance for distress, low levels of motivation, low levels of persistence, failure to take responsibility when appropriate, narcissism, high expectations of others without reciprocating, lack of vision for the future or long term goals, and lack of skills needed for adulthood, like basic cooking and cleaning skills.

The reasons for young adults failing to launch are countless and generally cannot be pinned on one factor. Reasons may include: our nation’s weak economy, a failing or unsuccessful run at college, laziness, drug and or alcohol addiction, or parenting factors such as parents who are overbearing or overprotective.

Family support
Family support refers to a families ability to support and assist each other in overcoming adversity. Family support proves to be a fundamental factor in the therapeutic, behavioral and emotional restoration of a troubled teen.

During adolescence, a teenage son or daughter may stray from the path, so to speak, while simultaneously ignoring the love and support from family members. Consequently, teens alienate themselves from their families. Feeling estranged from loved ones, adolescents may then display out of control behaviors. A teen such as this, is often stigmatized as a troubled teen, or troubled adolescent.

As frustrating and daunting it may be at times, it is crucial for family members to support a troubled teenage boy or girl during this time of need. During this, often tumultuous and chaotic venture, it is vital for parents to not fall victim to helplessness, but instead, support their child by locating therapeutic treatment, as this will lead to promoting therapeutic wellness within the troubled child.

Family therapy
Family therapy is a type of psychotherapy that psychologically treats families, encouraging them to undergo a productive change in dynamic. Moreover, family therapy is exclusively conducted under the supervision of a professional, credited psychotherapist.

Family therapy was created to address issues plague the dynamic of family members. Problems with communications are mainly at fault when issues among family member arise. Family therapy sessions are designed to help family members communicate with one another in a proactive and effective manner.

Family therapy also addresses underlying issuers that may be beneath the surface in a family’s dynamic. By identifying these underlying issues, a family therapist is able to pinpoint family members issues and further eradicate the problem at its source.

Fatty liver
a condition in which fat deposits accumulate in the liver as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.

Fentanyl
a chemical derivative of thebaine, used as a prescription painkiller. The street name for fentanyl and related compounds is China White.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a pattern of retarded growth and development, both mental and physical, with cranial, facial, lilmb, and cardiovascular defects, found in some children of mothers whose alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be classed as hazardous. The most common abnormalities are: prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, developmental delay or mental retardation, short palpebral fissures, a short upturned nose with sunken nasal bridge and a thin upper lip, abnormal palmar creases, and cardiac (especially septal) defects. Many other more subtle abnormalities have also been attributed to the effects of alcohol on the fetus (fetal alcohol effects, FAE), but there is controversy regarding the level of maternal consumption that produces such effects.

Fetal Drug Syndrome (FDS)
a pattern of developmental birth defects characterized by low birth weight, growth retardation, premature delivery, or spontaneous abortion, and withdrawal symptoms for the neonate: seen in babies of drug abusing mothers.

Flashbacks
post-hallucinogenic perception disorder, a spontaneous recurrence of the visual distortions, physical symptoms, loss of ego boundaries, or intense emotions that occurred when the individual ingested hallucinogens in the past. Flashbacks are episodic, of short duration (seconds to hours), and may duplicate exactly the symptoms of previous hallucinogen episodes. They may be precipitated by fatigue, alcohol intake, or marijuana intoxication. Post- hallucinogenic flashbacks are relatively common, and have also been reported for coca paste smokers.

Free-base cocaine
a smokable form of cocaine

Functional tolerance
a state in which a chronic alcohol abuser learns to function under the influence of alcohol. The impairment normally associated with performing a familiar task is reduced, but the ability to perform an unfamiliar task remains impaired.

Fundamental skills
Commonly, modern psychology, defines fundamental skills as the ability needed to perform a task or understand an idea. Also, the basic abilities necessary to function competently in society. Skills are reading, writing, mathematics and communication.
Fundamental skills are rudimentary abilities essential for living a basic, functioning life.

Fundamental, of course, describes the bare essentials of an entity. Without a fundamental foundation, nothing can come to fruition. Furthermore, without fundamental, rudimentary skills, an individual cannot effectively navigate through life, as they lack the basic abilities to do so.

Troubled teens will sometimes struggle, because they lack certain fundamental skills, making it impossible to achieve any type of substantial success. Troubled tees who lack the fundamental abilities to accurately control their emotions, abstain from acting on impulse, or even adhering to society’s most reasonable boundaries, are living a dangerous, chaotic lifestyle. If left unchecked, this lifestyle will ultimately result in utter destruction, or at best, unwavering mediocrity.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
a powerful depressant, often abused to induce euphoria and sedation. When slipped into an alcoholic beverage without the knowledge of the drinker, GHB has been employed as a date-rape drug.

Gateway drug
an illicit or licit drug, use of which is regarded as opening the way to the use of another drug, usually one viewed as more problematic.

Habit reversal
Habit reversal training is a “multicomponent behavioral treatment package originally developed to address a wide variety of repetitive behavior disorders. Habit reversal is used to treat individual’s suffering from Tourette’s syndrome, as well as individuals who struggle with impulse control behaviors such as, hair pulling, or pathological skin picking.

While this type of training was originally used to correct repetitive behavior disorders, habit reversal training has also become an invaluable tool in treating negative behaviors in troubled teens. Using Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, the most advanced residential treatment assists troubled teens in reversing their problematic behaviors and learned habits. A habit is a behavior, positive or negative, that is repeated continuously over an extended amount of time. Positive habits are often times difficult to develop and requires a certain amount of diligence and discipline from an individual.

Contrary to good habits, bad habits are much easier to establish and are developed when an individual lacks discipline. Unfortunately, it is much more difficult to break bad habits. Furthermore, if bad habits are left uncontrolled, they can easily destroy a young person’s life. It is for this reason that habit reversal is a crucial and formidable tool in treating out of control troubled teens.

Habit-forming
literally, having characteristics that encourage customary or regular use. The term also includes use of a drug in a way that implies that the drug has substantial dependence potential; ‘habit-forming” however, is more colloquial and sounds less threatening, and is therefore used, for instance, on pharmaceutical warning labels.

Habituation
becoming accustomed to any behavior or condition, including psychoactive substance use. In the context of drugs, the term has overtones of dependence.

Halfway house
often, a place of residence that acts as an intermediate stage between an inpatient or residential therapeutic program and fully independent living in the community. The term applies to accommodation for alcohol- or drug-dependent individuals endeavoring to maintain their sobriety.

Hallucination
perception of objects or experience of sensations with no real external cause. Can be auditory, visual, etc.

Hallucinogen
a drug that causes hallucinations (profound distortions in a person’s perceptions of reality). Under the influence of hallucinogens, people see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that seem real but do not exist. Some hallucinogens also produce rapid, intense emotional swings. Hallucinogens cause their effects by disrupting the interaction of nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin. Distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, the serotonin system is involved in the control of behavioral, perceptual, and regulatory systems, including mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception.

Hallucinogenic
a drug that induces hallucinations. Hallucinogens have been used for insight therapy in psychotherapy but this has been restricted or even banned by legislation See also: hallucinogenic plant

Hallucinogenic plant
any one of a wide variety of plant materials, containing hallucinogens, which are used traditionally by indigenous peoples for a variety of purposes: euphoria, sociability, relief of distress, as a medicine, or to induce visions. Some plants are used, particularly by Central and South American Indians, within a ritual context to produce hallucinations. It has been reported that these plants are becoming fashionable among urbanized and educated experimenters, who may mix one or other of them with alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, or other psychoactive substance and may experience severe reactions.

Hallucinosis
a disorder consisting of persistent or recurrent hallucinations, usually visual or auditory, that occur in clear consciousness and that the individual may or may not recognize as unreal. Delusional elaboration of the hallucinations may occur, but delusions do not dominate the clinical picture. See also: psychotic disorder, alcohol- or drug-induced

Hangover
a post-intoxication state comprising the immediate after-effects of drinking alcoholic beverages in excess. Non-ethanol components of alcoholic beverages may be involved in the etiology. Physical features may include fatigue, headache, thirst, vertigo, gastric disorder, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, fine tremors of the hands, and raised or lowered blood sugar. Psychological symptoms include acute anxiety, guilt, depression, irritability, and extreme sensitivity. The amount of alcohol needed to produce hangover varies with the mental and physical condition of the individual, although generally the higher the blood alcohol level during the period of intoxication, the more intense the subsequent symptoms. The symptoms vary also with social attitude. Hangover usually lasts no more than 36 hours after all traces of alcohol have left the system. Some of the symptoms of hangover are similar to those of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but the term “hangover” is usually reserved for the after-effects of a single drinking episode and does not necessarily imply any other alcohol use disorder

Harmful use
a pattern of psychoactive substance use that is causing damage to health. The damage may be physical (e.g. hepatitis following injection of drugs) or mental (e.g. depressive episodes secondary to heavy alcohol intake). Harmful use commonly, but not invariably, has adverse social consequences; social consequences in themselves, however, are not sufficient to justify a diagnosis of harmful use.

Hazardous use
a pattern of substance use that increases the risk of harmful consequences for the user. Some would limit the consequences to physical and mental health (as in harmful use); some would also include social consequences. In contrast to harmful use, hazardous use refers to patters of use that are of public health significance despite the absence of any current disorder in the individual user.

Healthy behaviors
Healthy behavior is any action a person acts that promotes positive psychological, physical and personal ramifications. By acting on healthy behaviors, an individual is more likely to live a happy, successful and fruitful lifestyle.

There are nearly countless healthy behaviors a person choose to act on. Healthy behaviors consist of actions such as eating a well-balanced diet, exercising, working hard on the job, or studying diligently in academics.. By displaying actions such as these, a person lives a balanced lifestyle. Additionally, a person who acts on healthy behaviors is more likely to have psychological stability, and less liable to struggle from an emotional disorder.

On the contrary, individuals who choose to act on negative, unhealthy behaviors, are likely to develop behaviorally and psychological ailments, such as depression or anxiety disorder. In conclusion, it is imperative to act on healthy behaviors as opposed to negative, unhealthy conduct. Moreover, choices of today significantly affect the outcomes of tomorrow.

Heroin (2)
semisynthetic drug derived from morphine. Discovered in 1874, it was introduced commercially in 1898 by the Bayer company in Germany. The name heroin was coined from the German heroisch meaning heroic, strong. Heroin is stronger (more potent) than morphine.

Icing
cocaine

Idiosyncratic reaction
individual, unpredictable, and non-dose-dependent response to any substance: drowsiness or euphoria, flushing, carpopedal spasms (pseudo- tetanus), apnoea, etc.

IDU
injecting drug user or use. Injections may be intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous (IV), etc. ‘” See also: administration, method of

Illicit drugs
drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal.

Impairment
diminished ability such as when alcohol decreases motor function or interferes with thinking. Inability to abstain: A form of impaired control over the use of a substance, such that there is an inability or unwillingness to refrain from substance use.

Impulse control
The medical dictionary provides readers with the following definition of impulse control : “The Psychology The degree to which a person can control the desire for immediate gratification or other; impulse control may be the single most important indicator of a person’s future adaptation in terms of number of friends, school performance, and future employment.”

Impulse control is perhaps the most significant issue that plagues teens today. Without effective impulse control, a teen is at risk of engaging in harmful and reckless behaviors that could result in dire consequences. Troubled teens are a large demographic of adolescents who struggle with impulse control and require treatment to effectively and safely make a change for the better.

Impulsiveness
Impulsiveness refers to an act of behavior conducted under little or no thought, but rather on impulse. Impulsiveness is can be a dangerous behavior, and should be treated with therapy if the individual consistently displays impulse control issues.

A person who chronically suffers from impulsiveness is unpredictable and a danger to his or her environment if therapeutic treatment is not sought after. Although impulsiveness, is a dangerous behavior, it can be treated and controlled with the right therapy and treatment. However, if left uncontrolled or untreated, impulsiveness can ruin the life of an individual and even those around him/her.

Additionally, treatment should be the number one priority for the parents or family of an individual who suffers from impulsivity. Whether a young man or woman struggles with impulsiveness because they are mentally ill, have little discipline, or simply don’t care about the consequences, but instead only desire instant gratification, there is hope for recovery. With adequate therapeutic restoration and rehabilitation, impulsiveness can be kept under control.

Individual academic treatment
Individual academic treatment is a specialized academic program designed to teach students individually, as opposed to clumping students together in an educational setting.

Adolescents are their own unique person. It is for this reason, that teens should also receive their own, personal academic curriculum. Teens learn at different speeds, through different methods, and, therefore, should be given an academic curriculum specifically created with their learning needs in mind.

Unfortunately, traditional schooling does not provide students with individual academic treatment. Typically, traditional teaching methods require students to learn as a group. Consequently, some of the teens in this group fall behind, due to their individual learning needs getting neglected. Teens, who fall behind, are then singled out, leaving them with the stigma of being ‘stupid’ or slow.’ This unfortunate misunderstanding results in many teens feeling inadequate. These students may then be apprehensive to even attempt to learn and grow academically.

Fortunately, teens, who would greatly benefit from the services of individual academic treatment, are able to receive their education at various facilities. These specialized treatment centers include, residential treatment centers, group homes, and therapeutic boarding schools for troubled teens.

Inebriation
the state of being intoxicated. The term usually implies a habitual pattern of drunkenness, and was sometimes used where “alcoholism” or “alcohol dependence” would now be used, implying a disease condition.

Inhalants
commonly used to gain an altered state and have been frequently abused. Solvents are the most popular form of inhalant. Side effects can be severe. Brain damage from inhalants is frequent. Health risks are severe and interaction with other drugs is sometimes fatal.

Inhibition
as related to behavior, restraint on instinctive impulses.

Injury
harm or hurt. The term “injury” may be applied in medicine to damage inflicted upon oneself as in a hamstring injury or by an external agent on as in a cold injury. The injury may be accidental or deliberate, as with a needle stick injury The term “injury” may be synonymous (depending on the context) with a wound or with trauma.

Instrumental use
referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug for a specific purpose other than getting “high.”

Intensive psychiatric treatments
Intensive psychiatric treatment can be described as the personal treatment given to an individual who suffers from a mental sickness or illness in a way that is very thorough or vigorous. Intensive psychiatric treatment, although specialized, is subjective and unique to particular systems and facilities that provide treatment. In other words, intensive treatment that may work for one type of person, may not be the most appropriate style of treatment for others.

Intensive psychiatric treatments are necessary for individuals who suffer from mental and behavioral disorders. Moreover, those who suffer consequences and personal loss due to their behaviors or mental condition are in need of immediate psychiatric treatment that is specialized for their personal, behavioral and mental afflictions.

Internal medicine
a medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment of adults. A physician who specializes in internal medicine is referred to as an internist.

Subspecialties of internal medicine include allergy and immunology, cardiology (heart), endocrinology (hormone disorders), hematology (blood disorders), infectious diseases, gastroenterology (diseases of the gut), nephrology (kidney diseases), oncology (cancer), pulmonology (lung disorders), and rheumatology (arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders).

Interpersonal relationships
developing and maintaining social relations between people. Between persons, Social (interpersonal skills).

Intervention
An intervention is a process of intervening in a person’s negative behavioral pattern. The intentions of intervening in the life of a person are so that they can overcome their negative thought process and cease to act on negative behaviors. Additionally, interventions are common actions loved ones act on if an individual is addicted to harmful substances or behaviors.

An intervention can come in many forms. By simply sitting an individual down and discussing their self-destructive behaviors and how these behaviors are effecting them is just one way a person can intervene. However, some individuals with severe mental or behavioral disorders may need more of an intense approach to intervention, such as seeking professional treatment for their self-destructive tendencies.

Intoxication
a condition that follows the administration of a psychoactive substance and results in disturbances in the level of consciousness, cognition, perception, judgment, affect, or behavior, or other psychophysiological functions and responses. The disturbances are related to the acute pharmacological effects of, and learned responses to, the substance and resolve with time, with complete recovery, except where tissue damage or other complications have arisen. The term is most commonly used with regard to alcohol use: its equivalent in everyday speech is “drunkenness”. Alcohol intoxication is manifested by such signs as facial flushing, slurred speech, unsteady gait, euphoria, increased activity, volubility, disorderly conduct, slowed reactions, impaired judgment and motor in coordination, insensibility, or stupefaction.

Intoxication is highly dependent on the type and dose of drug and is influenced by an individual’s level of tolerance and other factors. Frequently, a drug is taken in order to achieve a desired degree of intoxication. The behavioral expression of a given level of intoxication is strongly influenced by cultural and personal expectations about the effects of the drug.

Intoxication, pathological
a syndrome characterized by extreme excitement with aggressive and violent features and, frequently ideas of persecution, after consumption of disproportionately little alcohol. It lasts for several hours and terminates with the patient falling asleep. There is usually complete amnesia for the episode. A controversial entity primarily used in a forensic context. see also: intoxication Synonym: idiopathic intoxication

Involuntary smoking
involuntary inhalation of the cigarette smoke of others. Sometimes referred to as second-hand smoke.

Jellies
street name for tranquilizers

Jellinek’s typology
Jellinek’s classification of alcoholism, as outlined in The disease concept of alcoholism (1960).

alpha alcoholism –characterized by psychological dependence, with no progression to physiological dependence; also called problem drinking, escape drinking.

beta alcoholism—characterized by physical complications involving one or more organ systems, with a general undermining of health and shortened life span.

delta alcoholism-characterized by increasing tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and inability to abstain, but not loss of control of the amount of intake on any occasion. (See alcoholization.)

epsilon alcoholism–paroxysmal or periodic drinking, binge drinking; sometimes referred to as dipsomania.

gamma alcoholism—characterized by increasing tolerance, loss of control, and precipitation of a withdrawal syndrome on cessation of alcohol intake; also called ” Anglo

Jolly bean
street name for amphetamines

Ketamine
This drug started out as an anesthetic, but became a widely used recreational drug due to its hallucinogenic effects. Known as Special-K or Vitamin-K, it is typically snorted, but is sometimes sprinkled on tobacco or marijuana and smoked.

Khat
the leaves and buds of an East African plant, Catha edulis, which are chewed or brewed as a beverage. Used also in parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa, khat is a stimulant with effects similar to those of amphetamine. Heavy use can result in dependence and physical and mental problems resembling those produced by other stimulants.

Kindling effect
a phenomenon in the brain that produces a heightened sensitivity to repeated administrations of some drugs, such as cocaine. This heightened sensitivity is the opposite of the phenomenon of tolerance.

Korsakov syndrome (Korsakov psychosis)
see amnesic syndrome.

LAAM
the synthetic narcotic drug levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol, used in the treatment of heroin abuse. Brand name is Orlaam.

Leapers
amphetamines

Legalization
legal actions that make legal what was previously a criminalized behavior, product, or condition. See also: decriminalization

Licit drug
a drug that is legally available by medical prescription in the jurisdiction in question, or, sometimes, a drug legally available without medical prescription.

Lightheadedness
a feeling you are “going to faint.” Lightheadedness is medically distinct from dizziness, unsteadiness, and vertigo. See: Dizziness , Unsteadiness, and Vertigo .

Lima
marijuana

Limbic system
the areas of the brain involved with emotions and memory.

Lithium carbonate
a psychiatric drug used in the treatment of mania or bipolar disorder.

Lognormal distribution
refers to the theory, first propounded by Sully Ledermann in the 1950s, that alcohol consumption is distributed among the drinkers in a population according to a lognormal curve varying between populations on only one parameter, so that a large proportion of alcohol consumption is by a small proportion of drinkers. Although Ledermann’s particular formulation is now discredited, it is considered generally true that, in societies where alcohol is available freely on the market, drinkers are distributed along a spectrum of levels of alcohol consumption in a unimodal curve skewed to the left (referred to as the unimodal distribution of consumption, which also characterizes consumption of most consumables). The focus on the distribution of consumption in the population became associated with renewed attention to alcohol control measures to reduce levels of alcohol problems in a population; hence, this public-health oriented perspective is sometimes termed the distribution-of consumption theory.

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
a synthetic, serotonin-related hallucinogenic drug.

Maintenance therapy
treatment of drug dependence by prescription of a substitute drug for which cross-dependence and cross-tolerance exist. The term is sometimes in reference to a less hazardous form of the same drug used in the treatment. The goals of maintenance therapy are to eliminate or reduce use of a particular substance, especially if it is illegal, or to reduce harm from a particular method of administration, the attendant dangers to health (e.g. from needle sharing) and the social consequences. Maintenance therapy is often accompanied by psychological and other treatment.

Maladaptive behavior
Maladaptive behavior is a psychiatric term used to describe a person who engages and acts on self-destructive behavioral patterns. Those who are afflicted with maladaptive behavior are individuals who do not see reality for what it is or simply do not care that their way of thinking is flawed.

Typically, those who display maladaptive behaviors hold onto false beliefs or attitudes, no matter how much evidence shows they are actively choosing to act self-destructively. It should also be known that those who display these negative behavioral tendencies are in need of immediate therapeutic intervention.

Unfortunately, maladaptive behavior is a disorder that plagues millions of troubled teens. However, there are many therapeutic programs that offer substantial psychiatric treatments to those afflicted. Moreover, residential treatment programs are the most effective choice for suffering teenage girls.

Mania
a mood disorder characterized by agitation, bursts of energy, and impulsiveness.

MAO inhibitors
a class of first-generation antidepressants that reduce the effects of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain.

MDMA
abbreviation for 3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine . See: Ecstasy .

Medical model
a theory of drug abuse or addiction in which the addiction is seen as a medical, rather than as a social problem.

Member assistance program (MAP)
institutional programs for working or employees to help them with alcohol or other drug-abuse problems, set up by established unions within the organization and tailored to meet the needs of union members

Mescalin
induces a psychedelic state similar to those produced by LSD and psilocybin, but with unique characteristics. Subjective effects may include altered thinking processes, an altered sense of time and self-awareness, and closed- and open-eye visual phenomena.

Mescaline
hallucinogenic substance found in the peyote cactus in the south- western United States and northern Mexico.

Metabolism
all the chemical reactions that enable the body to function. Nutrients and materials are broken down into stored energy or into usable compounds. The biological transformation of ethanol in acetaldehyde and other products.

Methadone
a synthetic opiate. The most common medical use for methadone is as a legal substitute for heroin in treatment programs for drug addiction. It is usually administered to participating addicts daily in the form of a green, tasteless liquid at a drug treatment clinic. See also: Methadone treatment program.

Methadone
a synthetic opiate useful in treating heroin abuse.

Methadone maintenance
a treatment program for heroin abusers in which heroin is replaced by the long-term intake of methadone.

Methaqualone
a nonbarbituate depressant drug once used as a sedative. Brand name is Quaalude.

Misuse, drug or alcohol
use of a substance for a purpose not consistent with legal or medical guidelines, as in the non-medical use of prescription medications. The term is preferred by some to abuse in the belief that it is less judgmental.

Mollies
pure form of MDMA (ecstasy), usually a free powder or in capsules. Oftentimes MDMA is sold as molly. Should be white in color (when it’s pure) but is more often beige or yellow-brown, and sometimes brown or rarely gray.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
an enzyme that breaks down dopamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin at their respective synapse in the brain.

Morphine
major sedative and pain-relieving drug found in opium, being approximately 10% of the crude opium exudates.

Motor function
in medicine, having to do with the movement of a part of the body. Something that produces motion or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve cell that conveys an impulse to a muscle causing it to contract. The term “motor” today is also applied to a nerve that signals a gland to secrete. Motor is as opposed to sensory.

Multimodality programs
treatment programs in which a combination of detoxification, psychotherapy, and group support is implemented.

Multiple drug use
the use of more than one drug or type of drug by an individual, often at the same time or sequentially, and usually with the intention of enhancing, potentiating, or counteracting the effects of another drug. The term is also used more loosely, to include the unconnected use of two or more drugs by the same person. It carries the connotation of illicit use, though alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the substances most frequently used in combination with others in industrialized societies.

Mutual-help group
a group in which participants support each other in recovering or maintaining recovery from alcohol or other drug dependence or problems, or from the effects of another’ s dependence, without professional therapy or guidance. Prominent groups in the alcohol and other drug field include Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Al- Anon (for members of alcoholics’ families), which are among a wide range of twelve-step groups based on a non-denominational, spiritual approach.

Myopathy, alcohol- or drug-related
a disorder of skeletal muscle related to the use of alcohol and other drugs. The disorder can be acute (when it is termed acute rhabdomyolysis), with extensive necrosis of muscles, which are tender and swollen, and may be complicated by myoglobinuria and renal failure. The chronic form presents with insidious weakness and wasting of the proximal muscles.

Nalmafene
a long-lasting opiate antagonist for the treatment of alcoholism. Brand name is Revex.

Naloxone
an opioid receptor blocker that antagonizes the actions of opioid drugs. It reverses the features of opiate intoxication and is prescribed for the treatment of overdose with this group of drugs. See also: antagonist

Naloxone
a pure antagonist for morphine and other opiate drugs. Brand name is Narcan.

Naltrexone
a long-lasting opiate antagonist for the treatment of alcoholism. Brand name is ReVia. Brand names for an extended-release injectable form in Vivitrol.

Naltrexone
a drug that has been effective in the recovery of alcoholism. It blocks the receptions for endorphins, thereby reducing alcohol cravings. Use of the drug in combination with psychosocial therapy improves the effectiveness of treatment.

Narcologist
a psychiatrist who specializes in the treatment of addiction to alcohol or other drugs. The term is used particularly in the countries of the former Soviet Union.

Narcology
the study and science of phenomena relating to psychoactive substances as well as a medical specialty dealing with such problems. See also: addiction medicine; alcohology; narcologist

Narcotic
a chemical agent that induces stupor, coma, or insensibility to pain. The term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics. In common parlance and legal usage, it is often used imprecisely to mean illicit drugs, irrespective of their pharmacology.

Narcotics
A general term technically referring to opiate-related or opiate-derived drugs. It is often mistakenly used to include several other illicit drug categories as well.

Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
see mutual-help group

Narrowing of the drinking (drug use) repertoire
the tendency of substance use to become progressively stereotyped around a self-imposed routine of custom and ritual, characterized by reduced variability of dosage and type of substance taken, and of time, place, and manner of self-administration.

Nausea
the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought by many causes including, systemic illnesses, such as influenza, medications, pain, and inner ear disease. When nausea and/or vomiting are persistent, or when they are accompanied by other severe symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, or bleeding, a physician should be consulted.

NCADD
National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence.

Needle-sharing
the use of syringes or other injecting instruments (e.g. droppers) by more than one person, particularly as a method of administration of drugs. This confers the risk of transmission of viruses (such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B) and bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus).Many interventions such as methadone maintenance and needle/syringe exchanges are designed partly or wholly to eliminate needle-sharing.

Negative beliefs
A negative belief is a thought that negatively impacts the individual and causes them to act in anti-social behavior. While it is safe to say that all humans suffer from at least one negative level of thinking regarding their surroundings, making negative thinking a habit is severely detrimentalal for a person’s emotional, mental and even physical health.

Negative beliefs limit a person’s overall quality of life and can isolate them from a large portion of society. it is no surprise that troubled teens are a demographic of people who have distanced themselves from society, due to their ignorant level of thinking. While the teen may shrug off this notion as an annoying factor that only authority figures point out, acting in such anti-social behaviors can ultimately destroy their lives. Moreover, it is crucial and absolutely necessary for parents to eliminate any ignorant or self-destructive thought patterns their child may engage in. While it is not always possible to completely intervene, making an effort and being a positive role model is always productive.

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)
NAS occurs when heroin from the mother passes through the placenta into the baby’s bloodstream during pregnancy, allowing the baby to become addicted along with the mother. NAS requires hospitalization and treatment with medication (often a morphine taper) to relieve symptoms until the baby adjusts to becoming opioid-free.

Neuroadaptation
the neuronal changes associated with both tolerance and the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome. It is possible for an individual to exhibit neuroadaptation without showing the cognitive or behavioral manifestations of dependence. For example, surgical patients given opiate substances to relieve pain may sometimes experience withdrawal symptoms but may not recognize them as such or have any desire to continue taking drugs.

Neuroleptic
one of a class of drugs used for the treatment of acute and chronic psychoses. Also known as major tranquillizers and antipsychotics. Neuroleptics include the phenothiazines (e.g. chlorpromazine, thioridazine, fluphenazine) and the butyrophenones (e.g. haloperidol). Neuroleptics have low abuse potential (see abuse of non-dependence-producing substances).

Neurons
one of two principal classes of cells in the nervous system, composed of three parts: the cell body, dendrites and axons. Neurons receive and conduct electrical impulses.

Neuropathy, peripheral
disorder and functional disturbance of the peripheral nerves. This may be manifest as numbness of the extremities, paraesthesia (“pins and needles” sensations), weakness of the limbs, or wasting of the muscles and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Peripheral neuropathy may be accompanied by disturbance of the autonomic nervous system, resulting in postural hypotension. Poor nutrition, particularly vitamin B deficiency, accompanying hazardous consumption of alcohol, is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Other drugs, including the opioids, may–rarely–cause this syndrome. Synonym: polyneuropathy.

Neurotransmission
the process by which neurons transmit messages to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells.

Neurotransmitter
a chemical substance that a neuron uses to communicate information at the synapse.

Neurotransmitter
a natural chemical released by one neuron to influence or communicate with another. Acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA, etc.

Nicotine (1)
an alkaloid, which is the major psychoactive substance in tobacco. It has both stimulant and relaxing effects. It produces an alerting effect on the electroencephalogram and, in some individuals, an increased capacity to focus attention. In others, it reduces anxiety and irritability. Nicotine is used in the form of inhaled tobacco smoke, “smokeless tobacco” (such as chewing tobacco), snuff, or nicotine gum. Each puff of inhaled tobacco smoke contains nicotine that is rapidly absorbed through the lungs and delivered to the brain within seconds. Considerable tolerance and dependence develop to nicotine. Because of its rapid metabolism, brain levels of nicotine fall rapidly and the smoker experiences craving for a further cigarette 30-40 minutes after finishing the last one.

Nicotine (2)
the main active ingredient of tobacco. Extremely toxic and causing irritation of lung tissues, constriction of blood vessels, increased blood pressure and heart rate, and, in general, central nervous system stimulation.

NIDA
stands for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, one of the National Institutes of Health in the U.S., whose mission is to “lead the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction through support and conduct of research across a broad range of disciplines and rapid and effective dissemination of results of that research to improve drug abuse and addiction prevention, treatment, and policy.”

NIH
the National Institutes of Health. The NIH is an important U.S. health agency. It is devoted to medical research. Administratively under the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the NIH consists of 20-some separate Institutes and Centers. NIH’s program activities are represented by these Institutes and Centers.

Nodding
a semi-stuporous state experienced by heroin and high-dose methadone users after the euphoric effects accompanying use have subsided; characterized by head bobbing, bowed head, and drooping eyelids. Synonym: nodding out

Non-alcohol beverage
see alcohol, non-beverage

Non-medical use (NUPM)
use of a prescription drug, whether obtained by prescription or otherwise, other than in the manner or for the time period prescribed, or by a person for whom the drug was not prescribed. The term sometimes also covers the use of illicit drugs.

Norepinephrine
a neurotransmitter active in the sympathetic autonomic nervous system and in many regions of the brain

Nucleus accumbens
the part of the brain related to the limbic system that controls emotions.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder where individuals are unable to stop thinking the same thoughts or performing the same tasks over and over again. A common obsessive-compulsive disorder is frequent hand washing. Individuals attempt to alleviate their fear or anxiety by performing certain rituals (e.g.., washing hands 63 times before leaving the house). These rituals are to the extent that they have trouble carrying on with their daily activities.

Operant conditioning
operant conditioning follows the US psychologist Edward Thorndike’s (1874-1949) law of effect’ (1911): that responses become more frequent if followed by satisfying consequences but less frequent if followed by aversive consequences. Skinner showed that a rat which is rewarded when it operates on’ its environment by pressing a lever will increase its number of lever-presses. It is therefore associating the stimulus (reinforcement) with its own behavior (response). This is referred to as S-R conditioning. (see also, Classical Conditioning, Conditioning)

Opiate (1)
one of a group of alkaloids derived from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) with the ability to induce analgesia, euphoria, and, in higher doses, stupor, coma, and respiratory depression. The term opiate excludes synthetic opioids. See also: opioid

Opiate (2)
any substance, natural or synthetic, that is related in action to morphine and binds to the same, or some of the same, receptors. Some writers use it just to mean opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin – the natural ingredients of the poppy and their derivatives, excluding the synthetic narcotic analgesics.

Opiates
Any ingredients of opium or chemical derivatives of these ingredients. The term generally refers to opium, morphine, codeine, thebaine, and heroin.

Opioid
A natural or synthetic psychoactive chemical that binds to opioid receptors in the brain and body. Natural opioids include morphine and heroin (derived from the opium poppy) as well as opioids produced by the human body (e.g., endorphins); semi-synthetic or synthetic opioids include analgesics such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and fentanyl.

Opioid use disorder
A problematic pattern of opioid drug use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress that includes cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms as defined by the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-V) criteria. Diagnosis of an opioid use disorder can be mild, moderate, or severe depending on the number of symptoms a person experiences. Tolerance or withdrawal symptoms that occur during medically supervised treatment are specifically excluded from an opioid use disorder diagnosis.

Opioid, endogenous
the generic term applied to alkaloids from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), their synthetic analogues, and compounds synthesized in the body, which interact with the same specific receptors in the brain, have the capacity to relieve pain, and produce a sense of well-being (euphoria). The opium alkaloids and their synthetic analogues also cause stupor, coma, and respiratory depression in high doses.

Opioids
the generic term applied to alkaloids from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), their synthetic analogues, and compounds synthesized in the body, which interact with the same specific receptors in the brain, have the capacity to relieve pain, and produce a sense of well-being (euphoria). The opium alkaloids and their synthetic analogues also cause stupor, coma, and respiratory depression in high doses.

Over time, morphine and its analogues induce tolerance and neuroadaptive changes that are responsible for rebound hyper excitability when the drug is withdrawn. The withdrawal syndrome includes craving, anxiety, dysphoria, yawning, sweating, piloerection (waves of gooseflesh), lacrimation, rhinorrhea, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, muscle aches, and fever. With short-acting drugs such as morphine or heroin, withdrawal symptoms may appear within 8-12 hours of the last dose of the drug, reach a peak at 48-72 hours, and clear after 7-10 days. With longer-acting drugs such as methadone, onset of withdrawal symptoms may not occur until 1-3 days after the last dose; symptoms peak between the third and eight day and may persist for several weeks, but are generally milder than those that follow morphine or heroin withdrawal after equivalent doses.

Over-the-counter (OTC)
see pharmaceutical drug.

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
medicinal drugs available to the public without the requirement of a prescription. They are often referred to as nonprescription drugs.

Over-the-Counter drugs
drugs legally sold without a prescription.

Overdose
the use of any drug in such an amount that acute adverse physical or mental effects are produced. Deliberate overdose is a common means of suicide and attempted suicide. In absolute numbers, overdoses of licit drugs are usually more common than those of illicit drugs. Overdose may produce transient or lasting effects, or death; the lethal dose of a particular drug varies with the individual and with circumstances. See also: intoxication; poisoning

Oxycontin
a time-release form of oxycodone, used in the treatment of chronic pain.

Pain
an unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pain has both physical and emotional components. The physical part of pain results from nerve stimulation. Pain may be contained to a discrete area, as in an injury, or it can be more diffuse, as in disorders like fibromyalgia. Pain is mediated by specific nerve fibers that carry the pain impulses to the brain where their conscious appreciation may be modified by many factors.

Pancreas
a fish-shaped spongy grayish-pink organ about 6 inches (15 cm) long that stretches across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine). The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body.

Pancreatitis
an acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas associated with alcoholism and marked by severe abdominal pain, nausea and fever

Partial agonist
A substance that binds to and activates the same nerve cell receptor as a natural neurotransmitter but produces a diminished biological response.

Partial hospitalization program (PHP)
a type of program used to treat mental illness and substance abuse. In partial hospitalization, the patient continues to reside at home, but commutes to a treatment center up to seven days a week.

Passive smoking
the involuntary inhalation of smoke, usually tobacco smoke, from another person’s smoking. Coined in the 1970s in connection with studies of the effects of such inhalation, the term helped to draw attention to the detrimental effects of smoking on people in the smoker’ s immediate environment. Synonym: environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure

PCP
a cultural-political debate over whether general descriptive terms would give a favorable or unfavorable cast to the experience of mind-changing was conducted in many European and English-speaking countries in the 1960s and 1970s with regard to LSD and similar drugs. The terms ”psychotomimetic” and ”hallucinogen” (the latter became the accepted name for this class of drugs) conveyed an unfavorable connotation, while “psychedelic” and ”psychotic” gave a more favorable cast. ”psychedelic”, in particular, was also used with the same broad scope as “psychoactive” (The Journal of psychedelic drugs eventually changed to “psychoactive” in its title in 1981.) see also: psychotropic

Effects usually last for 4-6 hours, although residual effects may take several days or longer to clear. During the immediate recovery period there may be self-destructive or violent behavior. PCP delirium, PCP delusional disorder, and PCP mood disorder have been observed. As is the case with the hallucinogens, it is not known whether such disorders are specific drug effects or a manifestation of pre-existing vulnerability. In ICD-10, PCP-related disorders are classed with hallucinogens (F16).

In illicit use PCP may be taken orally, intravenously, or by sniffing, but it is usually smoked; effects begin within 5 minutes and peak at about 30 minutes. At first, the user feels euphoria, body warmth, and tingling, floating sensations, and a feeling of calm isolation. Auditory and visual hallucinations may appear, as well as altered body image, distorted perceptions of space and time, delusions, and disorganization of thought. Accompanying neurological and physiological symptoms are dose-related and include hypertension, nystagmus, ataxia, dysarthria, grimacing, profuse sweating, hyperreflexia, diminished responsiveness to pain, muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia, hyperacusis, and seizures

Pellagra
a nutritional deficiency syndrome caused by lack of niacin (vitamin B 6, nicotine acid) or the essential amino acid tryptophan (which can be converted to niacin) and characterized by confusion, depression, a symmetrical dermatitis affecting light-exposed parts of the body, and gastrointestinal symptoms, especially diarrhea. Pellagra is endemic among the poor in countries where unprocessed maize is the dietary staple. In other countries, it appears mainly in habitual heavy drinkers (alcoholic pellagra). Gastrointestinal symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distension. The mental symptoms are variable and may simulate any type of mental disorder, but depression is probably the most common psychiatric presentation. Disorientation, hallucinations, and delirium may develop, and some patients progress to dementia. Replacement therapy with niacin is effective in reversing most symptoms, although severe mental changes of long duration may not respond completely.

Pentazocine
a synthetic opioid which can induce an acute psychosis characterized by nightmares, depersonalization, and visual hallucinations. Because it has both agonist and antagonist characteristics, pentazocine can precipitate a narcotic withdrawal syndrome.

Pep pills
amphetamines.

Peptic ulcer
a hole in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. A peptic ulcer of the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, an ulcer of the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer, and a peptic ulcer of the esophagus is an esophageal ulcer. A peptic ulcer occurs when the lining of these organs is corroded by the acidic digestive juices which are secreted by the stomach cells.

Peripheral neuropathy
see neuropathy, peripheral.

Pethidine
a synthetic opioid. Although the actions of pethidine are similar to those of other opioids, use of the drug is further characterized by a high incidence of dysphoria and irritability, and sometimes myoclonic twitches, seizures, and delirium following prolonged use. Synonym: meperidine

Peyote
hallucinogenic buttons from several types of cactus (Lophophora williamsii, Anhalonium lewinii. The psychoactive ingredient of peyote is mescaline. See also: hallucinogen

Pharmaceutical policy
the system of regulations intended to affect the availability of and demand for pharmaceutical drugs.

Pharmacology
the branch of science that deals with the study of drugs and their action on living systems.

Pharmacy
a location where prescription drugs are sold. A pharmacy is, by law, constantly supervised by a licensed pharmacist.

Phencyclidine (PCP)
a psychoactive drug with central nervous system depressant, stimulant, analgesic, and hallucinogenic effects. It was introduced into clinical medicine as a dissociative anesthetic but its use was abandoned because of the frequent occurrence of an acute syndrome consisting of disorientation, agitation, and delirium. It appears to be of value in treatment of stroke. PCP is relatively cheap and easy to synthesize and has been in use as an illicit drug since the 1970s. Related agents that produce similar effects include dexoxadrol and ketamine. See also: PCP

Phenobarbital
a long-acting barbiturate drug, usually marketed in generic form.

Physical dependence
An adaptive physiological state that occurs with regular drug use and results in a withdrawal syndrome when drug use is stopped; usually occurs with tolerance.

Physical dependence
a condition in which the presence of a drug or alcohol is required to maintain normal functioning of the central nervous system. Physical dependence is caused by changes in the relationships among nerve cell membranes, neurotransmitters and their receptors, and the reward pathway.

Placebo
a pharmacologically inert substance that may elicit a significant reaction entirely because of the mental set of the patient or the physical setting in which the drug is taken.

Placebo effect
any change in a person’s condition after taking a drug, based solely on that person’s beliefs about the drug rather than on any physical effects of the drug.

Poisoning, alcohol or drug
a state of major disturbance of consciousness level, vital functions, and behavior following the administration in excessive dosage (deliberately or accidentally) of a psychoactive substance. (See overdose; intoxication). In the field of toxicology, the term poisoning is used more broadly to denote a state resulting from the administration of excessive amounts of any pharmacological agent, psychoactive or not.

Polydrug abuse
the abuse of two or more drugs at the same time, such as CNS depressants and alcohol.

Polydrug use (abuse)
see multiple drug use.

Polygenic
a trait, such as alcoholism, whose expressions is influenced by more than one gene.

Polyneuropathy
see neuropathy, peripheral.

Polytoxicomania
see multiple drug use.

Potentiation
the property of a synergistic drug interaction in which one drug combined with another drug produces an enhanced effect when one of the drugs alone would have had no effect.

Precursor
in a metabolic sequence of reactions, a compound that gives rise to the next compound: for example, chorine is the precursor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine

Predispose
to make susceptible, such as to certain health problems or to alcohol dependency. For examples, the presence of certain gene combinations or environmental conditions can predispose an individual to develop alcoholism.

Prefontal cortex
the part of the frontal lobe of the brain that relates to pleasure.

Pregnancy
the state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be indicated by positive results on an over-the-counter urine test, and confirmed through a blood test, ultrasound, detection of fetal heartbeat, or an X-ray. Pregnancy lasts for about nine months, measured from the date of the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP). It is conventionally divided into three trimesters, each roughly three months long.

Prescription
a physician’s order for the preparation and administration of a drug or device for a patient.

Prescription drugs
medicinal drugs available to the public only when approved by a medical professional and dispensed by a licensed pharmacist.

Prescription drugs
a controlled drug available only by the order of a licensed physician, P.A. or nurse Practitioners’ prescription.

Prevention
primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention is an active assertive process of creating conditions and or personal attributes that promotes the well-being of people. Secondary prevention is early detection and intervention to keep beginning problems from becoming more severe. Tertiary prevention is the effort to rehabilitate those affected with severe disorders and return them to the community.

Primary prevention
a type of intervention in which the goal is to forestall the onset of drug use by an individual who has had little or no previous exposure to drugs.

Proactive mindset
A proactive mindset is one’s ability act proactively as opposed to reactively. A person who is proactive will do what needs to be done in the moment they see an obstacle, as opposed to letting that obstacle deter them in the future. A proactive person makes decisions that will provide positive repercussions in their future.

A proactive mind will control a situation by doing something about it, rather than waiting for them to take place. A proactive mind is always thinking of the future. If an individual has a proactive mindset, they will prepare and work on ways in which they can improve their future.

Prognosis
the prospect of recovery as anticipated from the usual course of a disease.

Pseudo-Cushing syndrome
an endocrine disorder, induced by alcohol, in which there is excessive production of corticosteroids by the adrenal glands. It is manifested by a bloated and reddened face (similar to that of true Cushing syndrome), obesity, and hypertension, and distinguished from true Cushing syndrome by the more ready suppression of cortisol levels by administration of dexamethasone, and by resolution of the biochemical abnormalities after cessation of alcohol use.

Psilocybin
Is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms

Psilocybin
one of the naturally occurring hallucinogens found in over 75 species of mushrooms of the genera Psilocybe, Panaeolus, and Conocybe, which grow throughout much of the world. Psilocybin is the major hallucinogenic constituent of the mushrooms and psilocin is present in small amounts. After ingestion, however, psilocybin is converted to psilocin by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase; psilocin is about 1.4 times as potent as psilocybin. See also: hallucinogen

Psychedelic
Mind-manifesting group of drugs producing a mental state of great calm and intensely pleasurable perception.

Psychiatric drugs
medications used to treat forms of mental illness.

Psychiatrist
person with a degree in medicine (MD) with additional training in psychiatry; the study of mental disorders

Psycho pharmaceutical
a pharmaceutical that is a psychoactive drug.

Psychoactive Drug
any chemical substance that alters mood or behavior as a result of alterations in the functioning of the brain.

Psychoactive drug or substance
a substance that, when ingested, affects mental processes, e.g. cognition or affect. This term and its equivalent, psychotropic drug, are the most neutral and descriptive terms for the whole class of substances, licit and illicit, of interest to drug policy. “Psychoactive” does not necessarily imply dependence-producing, and in common parlance, the term is often left unstated, as in “drug use” or “substance abuse”.(See also drug.)

Psychoactive substance use disorders
A shortened version of the term used in ICD-10— Mental and behavioral disorders associated with psychoactive substance use. The term encompasses acute intoxication, harmful use , dependence syndrome, withdrawal state, withdrawal state with delirium , psychotic disorder, and amnesic syndrome. For a particular substance these conditions may be grouped together as, for example, alcohol use disorders, cannabis use disorders, stimulant use disorders. Psychoactive substance use disorders are defined as being of clinical relevance; the term “psychoactive substance use problems” is a broader one, which includes conditions and events not necessarily of clinical relevance. See also: alcohol-related problem; drug-related problem

Psychological dependence
a compulsion to use a drug for its pleasurable effects. Such dependence may lead to a compulsion to misuse a drug. A craving and compulsion to use a drug that is psychologically rather than physiologically based, e.g., compulsive gambling is a purely psychological dependence: a similar effect may come from drug use.

Psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mood, sensation, consciousness, or other psychological or behavioral functions

Psychosis
in the general sense, a mental illness that markedly interferes with a person’s capacity to meet life’s everyday demands. In a specific sense, it refers to a thought disorder in which reality testing is grossly impaired.

Psychosocial
involving both social and psychological behavior.

Psychotherapeutics
drugs that have an effect on the function of the brain and that often are used to treat psychiatric/neurologic disorders; includes opioids, CNS depressants, and stimulants.

Psychotherapy
the treatment of emotional or behavioral problems by psychological means, often in one-to-one interviews or small groups. Modern psychoanalysis and cognitive therapies concentrate on the patient’s beliefs. Other therapies, such as those within humanistic psychology, attend to the patient’s emotional state or sensitivity. The distinction, however, is not clear-cut, as all these therapies involve intense exploration of the patient’s conflicts, and most rely on the emotion generated in therapy as a force in the patient’s recovery. In contrast, behavior therapies derive from the view that neurosis is a matter of maladaptive conditioning and concentrate on modifying patients’ behavior.

Psychotic disorder, alcohol- or drug-induced
a cluster of psychotic phenomena that occur during or following substance abuse but not as a result of acute intoxication alone and not as part of a withdrawal syndrome. The disorder is characterized by hallucinations (typically auditory, but often in more than one sensory modality), perceptual distortions, delusions (often of a paranoid or persecutory nature), psychomotor disturbances (excitement or stupor), and abnormal affect (such as intense pain, psychotic depression, or ecstasy). The sensorium is usually clear although some degree of clouding of consciousness may be present. Such entities as alcoholic hallucinosis, amphetamine psychosis and persistent alcohol- or drug- induced psychotic state are included within this category. “Alcoholic psychosis” has been used loosely in a mental hospital context to mean any mental disorder (including alcohol dependence) related to alcohol use. In ICD-I0, substance use psychotic disorders are distinguished from residual and late-onset psychotic disorders.

Psychotic disorder, residual and late-onset, alcohol- or drug-induced
alcohol- or drug- induced changes in cognition, affect, personality, or behavior that persist beyond the period during which a direct drug-related effect might reasonably be assumed to be operating.

Psychotropic
in its most general sense, a term with the same meaning as “psychoactive”,

i.e. affecting the mind or mental processes. Strictly speaking, a psychotropic drug is any chemical agent whose primary or significant effects are on the central nervous system. Some writers apply the term to drugs whose primary use is in the treatment of mental disorders— anxiolytic sedatives, antidepressants, antimanic agents, and neuroleptics. Others use the term to refer to substances with a high abuse liability because of their effects on mood, consciousness, or both—stimulants, hallucinogens, opioids, sedatives/hypnotics (including alcohol), etc. In the context of international drug control, “psychotropic substances” refers to substances controlled by the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Psychotropic drug
drug that acts on psychic mood behavior or experience.

Psychotropic medication
an alternative term for psychiatric drugs.

Public health
the approach to medicine that is concerned with the health of the community as a whole. Public health is community health. It has been said that: “Health care is vital to all of us some of the time, but public health is vital to all of us all of the time.”

Reactive attachment disorder (RAD)
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a fairly rare, but nonetheless, severe emotional disorder, that should be treated with appropriate, professional care. RAD is a condition that actually starts during the earliest years of a human’s development. RAD is prevalent in infants who were not given proper loving treatment in their first months living.

Those who suffer from reactive attachment disorder, are commonly misunderstood, and can even appear to lack human empathy or other personable emotions. However, this is only the appearance of those who suffer from RAD and completely superficial observations by those who do not know them.

People suffering from RAD, are traumatized individuals. RAD is the result of an individual suffering mistreatment, early on in their developmental lives. Additionally, afflicted individuals build a social ‘exterior,’ which is created with the intentions of keeping people ‘out.’ Moreover, a person suffering from RAD builds this social exterior, as a defense mechanism, or as preventative measures so that they cannot feel the same neglect as they once have.

Receptor
special protein on the membrane or in the cytoplasm of a target cell with which a drug, a neurotransmitter, or a hormone interacts.

Recidivism
return or relapse to a type of behavior, such as drug taking.

Recovery
maintenance of abstinence from alcohol and/or other drug use by any means. The term is particularly associated with mutual-help groups, and in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other twelve-step groups refers to the process of attaining and maintaining sobriety. Since recovery is viewed as a lifelong process, an AA member is always viewed internally as a “recovering” alcoholic, although “recovered” alcoholic may be used as a description to the outside world.

Recovery home
see halfway house.

Recreational use
referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug only to get “high” or achieve some pleasurable effect.

Recreational use
use of a drug, usually an illicit drug, in sociable or relaxing circumstances, by implication without dependence or other problems. The term is disfavored by those seeking to define all illicit drug use as a problem.

Rehabilitate
to restore to effectiveness or normal life by training etc., esp. after imprisonment or illness; to restore to former privileges or reputation or a proper condition.

Rehabilitation
in the field of substance use, the process by which an individual with a substance use disorder achieves an optimal state of health, psychological functioning, and social well-being. Rehabilitation follows the initial phase of treatment (which may involve detoxification and medical and psychiatric treatment). It encompasses a variety of approaches including group therapy, specific behavior therapies to prevent relapse, involvement with a mutual-help group, residence in a therapeutic community or half-way house, vocational training, and work experience. There is an expectation of social reintegration into the wider community.

Reinstatement
reversion to a pre-existing level of substance use and dependence in an individual who has resumed use following a period of abstinence. As described, not only does the individual return to the previous pattern of regular or intensive substance use, but there is also a rapid reinstatement of other dependence elements, such as impaired control, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms.

Relapse
A relapse is when an individual chooses to act on negative behavior that they have previously determined to quit engaging in due to self-destructive consequences that action had on their life. An example of a personal relapse would be if an individual who overcame drug addiction chose to engage in drug abuse even though they have personally overcome that harmful activity.

Unfortunately, relapsing is always a possibility for those who have recovered from a self-sabotaging behavior, regardless of personal integrity, strength or intentions. The more an individual who is in recovery is aware of this fact, the more likely they will be able to stray away from the past’s, self-destructive behavioral patterns. However, if a person who has recovered from a substance or other harmful addiction, simply acts as though they are impervious to ever relapsing, they are more likely to do so in the future.

Relapse
a return to drinking or other drug use after a period, of abstinence, often accompanied by reinstatement of dependence symptoms. Some writers distinguish between relapse and lapse (“slip”), with the latter denoting an isolated occasion of alcohol or drug use. See also: relapse prevention

Relapse
the return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a patient has enjoyed a remission. For example, after treatment a patient with cancer of the colon went into remission with no sign or symptom of the tumor, remained in remission for 4 years, but then suffered a relapse and had to be treated once again for colon cancer.

Relapse prevention (1)
a set of therapeutic procedures employed in cases of alcohol or other drug problems to help individuals avoid or cope with lapses or relapses to uncontrolled substance use. The procedures may be used with treatment based on either moderation or abstinence, and in conjunction with other therapeutic approaches. Patients are taught coping strategies that can be used to avoid situations considered dangerous precipitants of relapse, and shown, through mental rehearsal and other techniques, how to minimize substance use once a slip has occurred.

Relapse prevention (2)
a therapeutic process for interrupting behaviors, beliefs and self-talk that lead to life style dysfunction.

Remission, spontaneous
cessation of alcohol or drug misuse, dependence, or problems without benefit of therapy or a mutual-help group; also called natural remission.

Epidemiological data suggest that many remissions occur without therapy or mutual-help group membership. Some prefer the term “natural recovery”, to avoid the disease connotations of the word remission.

Residential treatment center (RTC)
sometimes referred to as “rehab” or residential rehabilitation is a live-in health care facility providing therapy for substance abuse, mental illness, or other behavioral problems.

Resistance
opposition to something, or the ability to withstand it. For example, some forms of staphylococcus are resistant to treatment with antibiotics.

Reuptake
the process by which a neurotransmitter returns form the receptor site to the synaptic knob

Reversed tolerance
state produced by a particular drug, process, or individual, such that lower dosages of the same drug produce the same amount and quality of the desired or observed effect that previously was observed only with higher dosages.

Reward pathway
a specialized network of neurons in the brain that produce and regulate pleasure associated with eating, drinking, and sex. These neurons use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Alcohol actives the reward pathway. Alcohol abusers and alcoholics use alcohol to avoid pain (lack of pleasure) associated with withdrawal.

Reward pathway
a specialized network of neurons in the brain that produce and regulate pleasure associated with eating, drinking, and sex. These neurons use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Alcohol actives the reward pathway. Alcohol abusers and alcoholics use alcohol to avoid pain (lack of pleasure) associated with withdrawal.

Rohypnol
Infrequently used for surgical purposes in veterinary settings but may also be used as a “rape” drug.

Rohypnol
the trade name for flunitrazepam, which has been abused as a “date rape” drug. Rohypnol produces sedative-hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and amnesia. It can produce physical and psychological dependence and can be lethal when mixed with alcohol and/or other depressants. It is not approved for use in the US and its importation is banned.

Roofies
street term for Rohypnol.

Rush
A surge of euphoric pleasure that rapidly follows administration of a drug.

Rush
an immediate, intense, pleasurable effect that follows intravenous injection of certain drugs (e.g. heroin, morphine, amphetamine, cocaine, propoxyphene).

Salience (of substance-seeking behavior)
the degree of prominence of substance-seeking or substance use in the user’s thoughts or actions, e.g. giving a higher priority to obtaining and using substances than other activities.

Schizophrenia
a major mental illness, characterized by being “cut off” from a sense of reality. Symptoms of schizophrenia may include hallucinations and delusional thinking.

Screening test
an evaluative instrument or procedure, either biological or psychological, whose main purpose is to discover, within a given population, as many individuals as possible who currently have a condition or disorder or who are at risk of developing one at same point in the future. Screening tests are often not diagnostic in the strict sense of the term, although a positive screening test will typically be followed by one or more definitive tests to confirm or reject the diagnosis suggested by the screening test.

Scurvy
a nutritional deficiency syndrome caused by lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and characterized by bleeding, tender gums, hemorrhages in the skin and muscles, and pain and tenderness of muscles and joints. It occurs principally in malnourished individuals who eat little fruit or green vegetables. In developed countries, scurvy is now mainly seen in the alcoholic population.

Secondary prevention
a type of intervention in which the goal is to reduce the extent of drug use in individuals who have already been exposed to drugs to some degree.

Sedative
A drug that calms a patient down, easing agitation and permitting sleep. Sedatives generally work by modulating signals within the central nervous system. These sedatives can dangerously depress important signals needed to maintain heart and lung function if they are misused or accidentally combined, as in the case of combining prescription sedatives with alcohol. Most sedatives also have addictive potential. For these reasons, sedatives should be used under supervision, and only as needed.

All sedatives/hypnotics may impair concentration, memory, and coordination; other frequent effects are hangover, slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, drowsiness, dry mouth, decreased gastrointestinal motility, and liability of mood. A paradoxical reaction of excitement or rage may be produced occasionally. The time before onset of sleep is reduced but REM sleep is suppressed. Withdrawal of the drug concerned may produce a rebound of REM sleep and deterioration of sleep patterns. In consequence, patients treated over a long period can become psychologically and physically dependent on the drug even if they never exceed the prescribed dose. Withdrawal reactions can be severe and may occur after no more than several weeks of moderate use of a sedative/hypnotic or anxiolytic drug. Symptoms of withdrawal include anxiety, irritability, insomnia (often with nightmares), nausea or vomiting, tachycardia, sweating, orthostatic hypotension, hallucinatory misperceptions, muscle cramps, tremors and myoclonic twitches, hyperreflexia, and grand mal seizures that may progress to fatal status epilepticus. A withdrawal delirium may develop, usually within one week of cessation or significant reduction in dosage.

Sedative hypnotics
a category of depressant drugs that provide a sense of calm and sleep.

Sedative/hypnotic
any of a group of central nervous system depressants with the capacity of relieving anxiety and inducing calmness and sleep. Several such drugs also induce amnesia and muscle relaxation and/ or have anticonvulsant properties. Major classes of sedatives/hypnotics include the benzodiazepines and the barbiturates. Also included are alcohol, buspirone, chloral hydrate, acetylcarbromal, glutethimide, methyprylon, ethchlorvynol, ethinamate, meprobamate, and methaqualone. Some authorities use the term sedatives/hypnotics only for a subclass of these drugs used to calm acutely distressed persons or to induce sleep, and distinguish them from (minor) tranquillizers used for the treatment of anxiety.

Sedatives
drugs that suppress anxiety and promote sleep; the NSDUH classification includes benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and other types of CNS depressants.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
a group of antidepressants that slow down the reuptake of serotonin at synapses in the brain. Prozac, Celexa, Lexapro, Paxil, and Zoloft are prominent examples.

Self-help group (1)
a term that refers to two kinds of therapeutic groups, but is most commonly used for what is more properly called a mutual-help group. It also refers to groups that teach cognitive behavioral and other techniques of self- management.

Self-help group (2)
group of individuals with similar problems that meets for the purpose of providing support and information to each other and for mutual problem solving; Parents Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous are examples of self-help groups.

Self-Reporting Screening Inventory
these devices are usually substantially less time- consuming than conventional testing, and they can be used as a precursor test to determine if a full screen or assessment should be administered for the potential AODA client.

Sensation
in medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming (afferent ) nerve impulse in that part of the brain called the sensorium, which is capable of such perception. Therefore, the awareness of a stimulus as a result of its perception by sensory receptors. (Sensory is here synonymous with sensation.)

Serotonin
a neurotransmitter in the brain whose activity is related to emotionality and sleep patterns

Serotonin uptake inhibitor
a drug that inhibits neuronal re-uptake of serotonin, and consequently prolongs its action. Drugs of this class have been reported to be capable of reducing alcohol consumption. Certain antidepressants inhibit both the uptake of serotonin and that of noradrenaline (norepinephrine).

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
a group of antidepressants that slow down the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine at synapses in the brain. Remeron, Cymbalta, and Effexor are prominent examples.

SMART Recovery
a treatment program for abuse of alcohol and other drugs that emphasizes a nonspiritual philosophy and a greater sense of persona control in the abuser. SMART stands for “Self-Management-And-Recovery-Training.”

Snuff
a quantity of finely shredded or powdered tobacco. Modern forms of snuff are available in either dry or moist forms.

Steroids
a group of naturally-occurring chemical compounds, anabolic steroids are the type most often abused, since there is little medicinal purpose for these drugs. Dangerous side effects occur from use of these drugs.

Stimulants
a class of drugs that enhances the activity of monamines (such as dopamine) in the brain, increasing arousal, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, and decreasing appetite; includes some medications used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (e.g., methylphenidate and amphetamines), as well as cocaine and methamphetamine.

Substance abuse
a diagnostic term used in clinical psychology and psychiatry that identifies an individual who continues to take a psychoactive drug despite the fact that the drug-taking behavior creates problems for that individual.

Substance dependence
a diagnostic term used in clinical psychology and psychiatry that identifies on individual displaying significant signs of a dependent relationship with a psychoactive drug.

Symptomatic drinking
a pattern of alcohol consumption aimed at reducing stress and anxiety.

Synthetic opiates
synthetic drugs unrelated to morphine that produce opiate-like effects.

Systems approach
a way of understanding a phenomenon in terms of complex interacting relationships among individuals, family, friends, and community.

Tertiary prevention
a type of intervention in which the goal is to prevent relapse in an individual following recovery in a drug-treatment program.

Therapeutic communities
living environments for individuals in treatment for heroin and other drug abuse, where they learn social and psychological skills needed to lead a drug-free life.

Tolerance
the capacity of a drug to produce a gradually diminished physical or psychological effect upon repeated administrations of the drug at the same dose level.

Toxicity
the physical or psychological harm that a drug might present the user.

Tricyclic antidepressant
a class of first-generation antidepressant drugs. Brand names include Elavil, Norpramin, and Tofranil.

Typical antipsychotic drugs
a majority of available antipsychotic medications, all of which are associated with the possibility of Parkinson’s-like side effects

Underlying issues
Underlying issues are those matters that are the causative agents for human behavior. They are hidden under many layers of emotions and other mental processes and are not easily discerned by the casual onlooker. (often times, they are not readily known by an individual either).

Underlying issues are sometimes difficult to diagnose, and therefore are difficult to treat Moreover, teens who are displaying negative behaviors because of hidden, underlying issues, will not be able to achieve therapeutic restoration without the services of a therapeutic professional.

To ensure a troubled adolescent’s therapeutic restoration, parents can trust the therapeutic restorative services of wilderness therapy.

Values
Values are an individual’s personal standards they choose to live by. By setting high personal values, an individual is able to live a life or productivity and abstain from negative behaviors. Core values such as, integrity, hard work, and diligence are all standards a productive and proactive person implements in their life. If a person fails to live by values such as these, they are likely to develop negative habits and engage in self-destructing behaviors.

Unfortunately, many young people possess a poor and underdeveloped value system. Young men and women prioritize their values based on their personal interests. rather than focusing on important issues such as school or career goals, many troubled young people put their efforts into things like friendships, having fun, and even harmful substances such as drugs and alcohol. Furthermore, in order for a young person to truly meet their full potential, they must first possess a strong value system to live by.

Withdrawals
symptoms that occur after chronic use of a drug is reduced abruptly or stopped.

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